高山風衝地のクッション植物及び地衣蘇苔類が植生発達に与える影響 Influences of cushion plants, lichen and moss, on vegetation development, in alpine wind-blown ground

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  1.大雪山北部,小泉岳の高山風衝地において,パッチ状植生の調査と植生パッチにおける環境測定の結果から,イワウメ及び地衣蘇苔類が植生発達に与える影響を検討した.<BR>  2.調査方形区(20m×20m)には計118個の植生パッチが出現し,ほとんどのパッチは優占種にもとづいてイワウメの優占するパッチ,地衣蘇苔類の優占するパッチ,タイセツイワスゲの優占するパッチの3つのパッチタイプに区分された.3.パッチサイズが大きくなるにつれて種数は多くなる傾向があるが,<BR>  3つのパッチタイプで単位面積当たりの種数に有意差はみられなかった.一方,イワウメや地衣蘇苔類の優占するパッチはタイセツイワスゲ優占パッチに比べてパッチサイズが大きく,出現種数も多かった.また単位面積当たりの実生数も多かった.<BR>  4.体積含水率と窒素量は3つのパッチタイプと裸地との間で有意差がみられなかった.積算地温はタイセツイワスゲ優占パッチや裸地に比べてイワウメや地衣蘇苔類の優占するパッチで30-60℃程度高い.またC/N比はイワウメ優占パッチで最も高かった.<BR>  5.高山風衝地ではクッション植物イワウメや地衣蘇苔類のマット状植被が他の維管束植物に侵入・定着場所を提供しており,植生発達に貢献していると考えられる.またイワウメや地衣蘇苔類のマット状植被は積算地温の増大や土壌への有機物供給という面で立地環境を改変していることがわかり,植物の成長に好適な立地環境を提供していると考えられた.

Influences of cushion plants, lichen and moss, on vegetation development were studied in the alpine wind-blown ground on Mt. Koizumidake, in the northern part of the Daisetsu Mountains, northern Japan. In the study area, plant cover is low due to severe environmental conditions, and vegetation occurs mostly as isolated patches. Matted cover of cushion plants, lichen and moss dominate in some patches. 118 patches were recorded within the study plot (20m×20m). These patches are almost all classified as three types: DL type (patch dominated by cushion plants, Diapensia lapponica), matted cover, LM type (patch dominated by lichen and moss), matted cover, CS type (patch dominated by Carex stenantha). The number of species increases with the extension of patch size (p<0.01). The number of species per unit area is not significantly different in the three patch types (p>0.05). However, the patch size and the number of species in DL type and LM type were larger than those in CS type (p<0.01), and the number of seedlings per unit area in these patch types was more than in the CS type. Although cushion plants, lichen and moss do not contribute to species richness, they are considered to facilitate the invasion and establishment of vascular plants. Soil temperature, soil moisture, C/N ratio and nitrogen content were also measured in the three patch types. The annual accumulated effective temperature (standard temperature is daily mean soil temperatures of >5℃) in DL type and LM type were higher than that of the CS type, and bare ground about 30-60℃. The C/N ratio in DL type was highest among both of the patch types and bare ground (p<0.01). It is suggested that the matted covers of cushion plants, lichen and moss contribute to the growth of vascular plants due to the increase of soil temperature or organic supply. In severe alpine environmental conditions, cushion plants, lichen and moss can extend more than the cover of the vascular plants. Therefore, it is considered that these matted covers provide plant recruitment sites.

収録刊行物

  • 植生学会誌

    植生学会誌 21(2), 79-87, 2004

    植生学会

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110007522355
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11347548
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    13422448
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    7281328
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZR3(科学技術--生物学--植物) // ZU4(書誌・図書館・一般年鑑--専門書誌)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z18-3499
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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