社会システムにおける暴力的排除 : 意味の無根拠性と差別 The Violent Exclusion, of the Social System : The Groundlessness of Meanings and the Discrimination
The system theories, which have been established on the model of the organization or the machine, have not been worried about problems of system's boundaries, because the organization and the machine have material boundaries. On the contrary, the society does not have any visual boundary. So, if we want to grasp the society as a system, we cannot adopt the theories which assume easily the whole of the system. Based upon the social system theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper describe the society fundamentally as follows. (1) It is a system with the boundary ofmeanings by which we can reduce the complexity of the world. (2) It's inner components are not individuals but actions as meaningful behaviors. Individuals take part in the social system as the subjects of social actions. But they also are outer environments, because they can deviate from the social system at all times. It shows the arbitrariness of the code of meanings. So the social system has to govern individuals by sanctions. The groundlessness of the code certainly make the ultimate form of the sanction a violent exclusion which causes every discrimination. Therefore, it is necessary for the philosophical study on social work to formulate a mechanism of changing the code to resist the discrimination.
社会福祉学 34(1), 129-146, 1993-06-15