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The brain is capable of various cognitive functions in perception and action, and the functions appear in a system-environmental loop, through the brain, body and environment. In studies of the robotics and artificial intelligence, the notion of the embodiment was highlighted in the last decade, which encourages a viewpoint of the relationship between the agent and the environment. However, the peripheral and central nervous systems are hierarchically organized in time and space. Ignoring of such complex organization, a priori separation of the agent from the environment misses the most important point of how the brain exhibits a single entity such as the self as a consequence of cooperation among distributed autonomous components. We propose here a research approach of the brain-based robotics, which focuses on the process of how independent autonomous components cooperatively works in the context of a task accomplishment in the real world. It therefore requires a construction of robotic systems with the real-time interaction between the simulator of internal neuronal models and environmental changes. The on-line simulator system transmits and receives data from the robot body so that it offers a way to investigate coordination mechanisms in human-robot interactions. This synthetic approach may help understanding brain functions in a social environment and a prototype of self-conscious in human developmental process.