The effects of dietary amaranth, Amaranthus hypochondriacus, ingestion on serum and liver lipid levels were studied in rats. Rats were fed the amaranth in amounts based on the human ingestion of energy from rice as a fraction of all food intake. Serum total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations in the groups fed amaranth and amaranth-supplemented rice diets tended to increase. Liver triglyceride content was significantly reduced by the amaranth diet. These results suggest that the dietary amaranth may exert a fatty liver prevention effect along with a decrease in the liver triglyceride content. This finding suggests that the ingestion of amaranth has a beneficial effect on the lipid metabolism.