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Genus Urtica plants are traditional medicinal plants commonly used for treatment of rheumatism and internal desease in Turkey. The genus Urtica plants collected in various places in Turkey were identified by external and internal morphological characters of axis and petiole. Of the 5 species growing in Turkey, 4 species, U. pilulifera L., U. urens L., U. dioica L., and U. haussknechtii BOISS. are used as medicinal plants. Microscopic studies revealed that 1) the transverse section of axis of all the species except U. pilulifera L. was rhumb, 2) the petiole of all of the species except U. urens L. had 5-7 vascular bundles, 3) clustered crystal of calcium oxalate was observed in the axis and petiole of U. dioica L. and U. haussknechtii Boiss., only in the node of U. urens L., and not at all in U. pilulifera L. Identification of U. dioica L. by external characters was difficult as their intraspecies variation was considerable; microscopic characters might be more useful.