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"Shidagonglao (十大功労)" is used as an antipyretic, antidote and antiphlogistic agent in the Chinese folk medicine. It is also used as a source of berberine. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia mentions that this drug is derived from the stems of Mahonia bealei and M. fortunei of the family Berberidaceae. In Sichuan province, 14 species, including the above 2 species, are reported to be used as this crude drug which has not been pharmacognostically confirmed yet. In order to clarify the botanical origins of this drug in the present Sichuan market, a comparative anatomical study was carried out on the stems and leaves of 13 Mahonia species. The results showed that these 13 species could be distinguished from each other by the characteristics of the stems and leaves. The stems were characterized, in the middle part, by the amounts and arrangement patterns of sclereid groups in the primary cortex, the maximum number of cell layers per cork layers, presence or absence and the amount of phloem fibers and stone cells in the phloem ray, the ratios of the length of xylem to the radius of stem, and presence or absence and the amounts of solitary crystals in xylem ray and pith. The leaflets were characterized by the outline of midrib, thickness of lamina region, numbers of cell layers of palisade tissue and its presence or absence in the midrib, presence or absence of needle crystals in the adaxial epidermal cells, the shape of epidermal cells and the density of stomata and Stomatal Index in the adaxial and abaxial surface views. On the basis of the present results, each of the 13 samples was shown to be derived from the stems or aerial parts of one of the following species: M. ganpinensis, M. fortunei, M. bealei and M. confusa.