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The amounts of 4 essential oil components, hinesol, β-eudesmol, atractylon (sesquiterpenes) and atractylodin (polyacetylenic compound) in various organs of Atractylodes lancea DC. (Compositae) were determined. The aerial parts contained only negligible amounts of these constituents. In contrast, the rhizome was rich in both the sesquiterpenes and the acetylenic compound. The root contained atractylodin as much as the rhizome, and small amounts of the sesquiterpenes. The composition of oil drops in the rhizome and the root was essentially the same as that of n-hexane extract of the corresponding organs, confirming the presence of not only sesquiterpenes but also polyacetylenic compounds in oil drops. Atractylodin was steam-distilled less efficiently from the powdered rhizome than the sesquiterpenoid components. The accumulation of sesquiterpenoids well correlated with the development of lysigenous oil cavities, which distributed in the rhizome but not in the capitulum, leaf, stem or root.