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This article investigates the status of the education and training of Filipino nurse candidates who have been working in Japan under the Japan-Philippine Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA). A survey wasconducted among Filipino nurse candidates, using a practice examination based on the English version of Japan's National Board Examination for Registered Nurses in 2009. Categorized by area, the mean correct answer rate for nursing-related questions ranged between 61% and 73%; the rate for questions concerning basic knowledge of body functions and diseases ranged between 55% and 57%. There was a large gap in terms of the results of the examination between those who had previously seen the exam questions and those who had never seen them. While 57.1% of those who had previously seen the questions satisfied the acceptance criteria, only 23.7% of those who had never viewed the test satisfied it. Based on these results, the factors which serve as obstacles that Filipino nurse candidates encounter in passing the national examination include not only difficulties in acquiring Japanese proficiency but also differences between Japan and the Philippines in respect to the nursing education curriculum and basic nursing policies.