日本の気候変動政策ネットワークの基本構造 : 三極構造としての団体サポート関係と気候変動政策の関連 The Japanese Climate Change Policy Network : The Relationship between a Triple-Pole Structured Organizational Support Network and Policy Output

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本稿は,日本の気候変動政策に関わる主要な利益団体への面接式アンケート調査の結果をもとに,第1に,日本の気候変動政策ネットワークの構造を明らかにすること,第2にその政策ネットワークの構造と,日本の気候変動政策の特徴との関連を明らかにするものである。調査結果によれば,日本の気候変動政策ネットワークは,環境省ブロック・経団連ブロックを両極とし,経産省ブロックを綱引きしあう三極構造である。補助金や減税といった政策に関する政策選好に関しては,各ブロック間の違いが見られないため,争点化がなされず,これらがベースとなる政策となる。一方これらの政策だけでは削減が不十分なため,追加的な対策が必要となる。ここでは各ブロックの政策選好の違いは大きく,それぞれの政策選好の違いを反映したかたちで綱引き状況が生じ,最終的に政治的影響力の大きい経団連ブロックの政策選好がより反映されやすい。また三極構造であることは,ブロック間のバランスを働かせ,離脱を防ぐ効果ももっており対策をとらないという選択はされにくい。以上のプロセスの結果,補助金と減税,原子力発電と自主行動計画を中心とした日本の気候変動政策の特徴が生み出される。

This study investigates the relationship between the Japanese climate change policy network and its policy output based on a face-to-face questionnaire survey. During 2012 and 2013, a total of 72 organizations active in Japanese climate change policy-making, such as ministries, political parties, mass media, industrial organizations, individual companies, and NGOs, were interviewed. Each organization was asked to evaluate several climate change mitigation policies to reveal its underlying policy preferences. According to the factor analysis, two factors emerged from the evaluation. The first factor revealed inversely related preferences for voluntary technology-oriented measures (voluntary action plan and nuclear energy) or measurements to bring about socioeconomic structural change (carbon tax and emission trade). The second factor was related to the evaluation of tax exemptions and subsidies to encourage the growth of renewable energy and energy efficient products. To analyze the relationship between these policy preferences and the policy network, we asked the respondent organizations about which bodies they cooperated with and took advice from, when setting their own policy positions. We also enquired about which organizations had sufficient power to influence policy outcomes. Next, we applied the block-modeling method of social network analysis and observed a triple-pole structure in the organizational support network. In this network structure, two blocks consisting of the Ministry of the Environment and the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) are on either side of the middle block that consists of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry; the two side blocks have support ties to the middle block. This triple-pole structure strongly affects how Japanese climate policy outcome is brought about. Because each block has no distinctively different policy preferences regarding tax exemptions and subsidies, namely policies in factor 2 of the factor analysis, these policies were applied first. However, the policies were insufficient for reducing greenhouse gases in order to meet the target in the first commitment period stipulated by the Kyoto Protocol. Moreover, related tax exemptions and subsidies had limits for providing further fiscal stimulus. Consequently, other types of policies, namely policies in factor 1, were required to achieve the target. Nevertheless, the above mentioned three entities expressed considerable differences regarding the implementation of these policies. Finally, voluntary action and nuclear energy were selected under the influence of the more powerful Keidanren Block. It is still important to remember that this block cannot avoid implementing this mitigation policy in order to prevent the other two blocks forming a coalition and applying other policies, even if it is reluctant to participate in any particular policy measure. As a result of the power balance among the three blocks in the policy network, Japanese climate change policy consists of a combination of tax exemptions, subsidies, voluntary actions, and nuclear energy promotions.

収録刊行物

  • 環境社会学研究

    環境社会学研究 20, 100-116, 2014

    環境社会学会 ; 1995-

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110009896409
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN10498448
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    025963424
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z6-B659
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  NDL-Digital 
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