「ボランティア」とは誰か:参加に関する市民社会論的前提の再検討 Who is a "Voluntee"?:A Reconsideration of Assumptions about Participation in Theories of Civil Society
The dominant conception of volunteer activities views them as the activities of idealistic "citizen." The conception is based on the following three empirical assumptions:1) the number of people participating in volunteer activities has been increasing;2) people take the initiative to carry out the activities, rather than being forced by compulsory community organizations; and 3) the activists are not biased toward a specific social stratum. However, by analyzing various statistical data on the changes in volunteer activities after 1980s, this paper shows that none of the abobe assumptions are justified. In the first place, there has not been a real increase in volunteer activity. The "increase" in the number of volunteer activities in the statistical data is explained largely by the fact that as time passes more people define their activities using the word "volunteer." Secondly, most volunteer activities are still performed through the community organizations. Thirdly, as for the social stratum, the upper economic class has greater influence on volunteer participation than before, which is the opposite of the current perception. From this perspective, while the space for citizens participation will expand, it is likely that economic power extended without the market will be more influential in the public sphere. So far, Tocquevilles idea has been the mainstream, conceptualization of civil society in relation to administrative authority. However, it is important to build the independence of civil society in relation to the market. This construction depends on how positively NPOs can intervene in the inequality which spontaneously exists inside the civil society, and how effectively NPOs can mediate the voice of people who suffer a relative shortage of resources and space.
ソシオロジ 48(1), 93-109,169, 2003