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Mortaria which are the vessels for grinding or crushing of many ingredients has a different feature in Asia and Europe. Mortaria in Asia are bowl-shaped vessels with scratched comb lines in the inner surface. Mortaria in Roman times are bowl-shamed vessels with grit embedded in the inner surface. They suggests use as a grinding and mixing bowl, and many examples shows significant wear on the inner surface suggesting a heavy grinding action. Roman mortaria are vessels with a prominent hooked flange, and often have a spout formed in the rim.The use of a vessel called a mortarium is recorded in the Roman text like agricultural texts and recipe books. The Roman Cookery of Apicius (or, in Latin, De Re Coquinaria ) is the famous recipe book at the time of Augustus and Tiberius (27B.C.-A.D.37) in Imperial Rome, and 36 recipes have mortarium recipe in 468 recipes. It is as follows.' <Aliter> ISICIUM: adicies in mortarium piper,ligusticum, origanum, fricabis(1), suffundes liquamen, adicies cerebella cocta, teres(2) diligenter, ne astulas habeat. ･････. 'When this is translated into English, it is as follows.'RISSOLES, another Method'. Put in a mortar pepper, lovage, and origin; grind; moisten with liquamen , and cooked brains, grind thoroughly to dissolve lumps.(Flower and Rosenbaum 1958) ' Underlined part (1), (2) are the meaning of ' grinding '. In recipes which use a mortarium for grinding many ingredients, there are seasoningslike pepper, liquamen, wine, olive oil, vinegar and honey.The oldest text that a mortarium is recorded in Roman times is Cato the Elder's De Agri Cultura (thought to be a work from the beginning of the second century B.C.). It is as follows. 'Libum hoe modofacito. Casei P.II bene disterat(1) in mortario. ･････. ' When this is translated into English, it is as follows. ' Recipe for libum: Grind 2 pounds of cheese thoroughly in a mortar; ･････.' (Hooper and Ash 1993). Underlined part (1) is the meaning of ' grinding '. From Cato's texts it is seen that mortaria were not merely used as implements for grinding, as there are several references to uses for kneadingbatter and flour for bread and cake. It is better to think of mortaria as vessels having a variety of uses, and not just as mortars.Mortaria are recorded in the ancient Greek text as 'θυειαι(θυεια,θυια) ' in Greek. It is as follows in Chrysippus' s ΑΡΤΟΚΠΙΚΩ (or, in English, Bread Making). ' ･････κατιλλος δε ορνατος ο λεγομενος παρα' Pωμαιοις ουτως γιγνεται θριδακας πλυνας ζεσον και εμβαλων οινον εις θυιαν(1) τριβε(2) τας θριδακας ,･････. ' When this is translated into English, it is as follows.' The catillus ornatus, as the Romans call it, is made in the following manner : Wash and scrap some lettuce, pour wine into a mortar and grind the strips of lettuce, ･････.(Gulick 1993b) ' Underlined part (1) is a mortarium, and (2) is the meaning of 'grinding '.
- 福井工業高等専門学校研究紀要. 人文・社会科学
福井工業高等専門学校研究紀要. 人文・社会科学 -(45), 35-65, 2011-12-00