Studies on Being in Aristotle's Metaphysics Beta アリストテレス『形而上学』Ｂ巻における存在の研究
Studies on Being in Aristotle's Metaphysics Beta
In Book Beta of the Metaphysics, Aristotle presents fifteen aporias, orpuzzles, whose subject matter is centered on fundamental and foundationalissues in first philosophy. This study analyzes the subject matter and itpresents Aristotelian solutions to the first five aporias to appear in BookBeta. The first four aporias deal with puzzles concerning the possibility ofthere being a science called prôtê philosophia, or, first philosophy, and thefifth aporia deals with a fundamental puzzle within metaphysics. Consideredas a group, the first five aporias serve as an introduction to the science ofbeing qua being, and in conjunction with their solutions function in apreliminary sense and a preparatory sense for the remaining aporias that arepresented in Metaphysics, Book Beta. The solutions to the aporias alsofunction as evidentiary support for the claim that the Metaphysics is aphilosophical unity. This is because it is Aristotleʼs task within theMetaphysics to address the puzzles presented in Book Beta and to offerreasonable solutions. All of the solutions to the five aporias analyzed arefound directly within the Metaphysics, with the partial exception to thesecond solution to the fifth aporia, where it is necessary to refer to passagesin the Physics and De Anima for perspective and an introduction tohylomorphism as it relates to both matter and the soul.This study is philosophical and historical, and claims that the solutionsto the first five aporias are based on considering the puzzles from anontological context. The first aporia raises the issue of whether it is the dutyof one science or more than one science to investigate all the kinds ofcauses. Through an analysis of Metaphysics, Book Gamma and BookEpsilon Aristotle states that it is indeed the duty of one science, the mostuniversal and general science, prôtê philosophia, to investigate all the kindsof causes. The second aporia raises the issue of whether it belongs to onescience or more than one science to study the principles of demonstration.Through a complete analysis of Metaphysics Book Gamma it is ascertainedthat it is indeed the duty of one science, prôtê philosophia, to study both theultimate principles of being and the principles of demonstration. The thirdaporia raises the issue of whether it belongs to just one single science ormore than one science to investigate all substances and their attributes.Aristotleʼs solution to this puzzle is found in Metaphysics, Book Gamma,chapters two and three and is based on his classification of prôtêphilosophia and the division of the study of philosophy into its respective branches. The branches investigate being as it is related to that specific subject matter, yet all the branches are divisions within the unified study ofphilosophy. The fourth aporia raises the issue of whether the proper subjectof prôtê philosophia is substance only, or also the essential attributes ofsubstance. Aristotleʼs solution is found in Metaphysics, Book Gamma,chapter two, and is based on his notion that prôtê philosophia is the mostgeneral investigation into substance, and as so, indeed also studies itsessential attributes. The fifth aporia raises a fundamental and foundationalissue within the study of prôtê philosophia by examining the puzzle ofwhether only sense-perceptible things exist, or in addition to these, also nonsense-perceptible things exist. This study claims that there exists a tripartiteset of solutions that resolve this puzzle. First, Aristotle criticizes and rejectsthe Platonic theory of Forms in Metaphysics Book Alpha chapters six andnine. Secondly, Aristotle raises the theory of hylomorphism that explainsgeneration in the sense-perceptible world without the need for separate, andcausally empty Forms. Aristotleʼs presentation of the theory ofhylomorphism is analyzed from passages in Physics, Book II, chapters twoand three, De Anima, Book II, chapter one, and Metaphysics, Book Zeta,chapters one, seven, eight, and nine. The third solution to this puzzle is thepositing of the Unmoved Mover in Metaphysics Book Lambda chapters one,six, seven, nine, and ten. The positing of the Unmoved Mover and nousaffirms that indeed non-sense-perceptible substances exist.There has been a renewed interest in the study of the aporias inMetaphysics, Book Beta, in recent years, and perhaps this study will serveas a lucid introduction to the ontologically significant issues that are raisedwithin the first five puzzles.
Hokkaido University（北海道大学）. 博士(文学)