A practical approach to sedimentology
A practical approach to sedimentology
Allen & Unwin, 1987
- : pbk.
大学図書館所蔵 件 / 全14件
Bibliography: p. 260-269
This book is designed for a one-semester course in sedimentology taken by advanced undergraduate or graduate students. It gives detailed descriptions of sedimentary features and the analytical methods used to evaluate them and is intended to support and reinforce principles presented in lectures. Discussion of principles and processes is found in complimentary texts, such as Leeder's (1982) Sedimentology: process and product and selected readings in professional journals. This book is not an exhaustive treatise of laboratory techniques and theory. The subject matter includes topics generally covered in courses entitled "Sedimentology" or "Sedimentation". Sandstone and carbonate petrography is commonly given in a separate course. Furthermore, this topic is covered in several current texts. For these reasons I have omitted petrographic methods, with the exception of those applying to heavy minerals. I have included a rather extensive discussion of heavies because this topic is generally lacking in most modern texts. Every course in sedimentology is highly individualistic and material covered varies with the interests, background, and point of view of the instructor. For these reasons some topics presented in this book are not necessarily covered in all courses. Similarly some instructors may find that their favorite topic is missing. I can only hope that this problem is minimal. Several chapters contain precise exercises to be completed by the student. Some must be done in the classroom, where specimens are available for study. Others may be done outside of the classroom.
1 Description of sedimentary structures.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Structures on the upper bedding surface.- 1.3 Internal structures.- 1.4 Structures on the lower bedding surface: sole marks.- 1.5 Structures formed by soft-sediment deformation.- 1.6 Exercises: sedimentary structures.- 2 Analysis of sedimentary structures.- 2.1 Paleocurrent analysis.- 2.2 Correction of data for tectonic tilt.- 2.3 Graphic presentation of directional data.- 2.4 Vector mean and vector magnitude.- 2.5 Moving-average maps.- 2.6 Factors that cause variability in cross-bed dip azimuths.- 2.7 Exercises.- 3 Primary grain fabric.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Sand-grain orientation.- 3.3 Pebble orientation in conglomerate.- 3.4 Intraclast orientation in limestone.- 3.5 Orientation of fossils.- 3.6 Exercise.- 4 Trace fossils.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Classification.- 4.3 Keys for trace fossil identification.- 4.4 Descriptions of common trace fossils.- 4.5 Behavioral classification.- 4.6 Features that may be misidentified as trace fossils.- 4.7 Value of trace fossils in sedimentology.- 4.8 Exercises: trace fossils.- 5 Particle morphology.- 5.1 Definitions.- 5.2 Measurement.- 5.3 Factors that control particle morphology.- 5.4 Reasons for studying particle morphology.- 5.5 Sample statistical analysis using the chi-square test.- 5.6 Exercises: roundness and chi-square.- 6 Mineral identification using X-ray diffraction.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Mineral identification (exclusive of clays).- 6.3 Clay mineral identification.- 6.4 Chemical composition in solid-solution series.- 6.5 Quantification of mineral content.- 6.6 Sample preparation.- 6.7 Exercises: X-ray diffraction.- 7 Grain size.- 7.1 Grain-size classification.- 7.2 Grain-size analysis of unconsolidated sediment.- 7.3 Grain-size analysis of sedimentary rock.- 7.4 Graphic presentation of data.- 7.5 Statistical parameters of grain size.- 7.6 Variation in grain size with distance of transport.- 7.7 Exercises: grain size.- 8 Sedimentary rock classification.- 8.1 Sandstone.- 8.2 Mudrock.- 8.3 Conglomerate.- 8.4 Limestone.- 8.5 Sample statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney U-test.- 8.6 Exercises: rock classification.- 9 Heavy minerals.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Heavy mineral assemblage.- 9.3 Factors that control heavy mineral assemblages.- 9.4 Methods of separation and analysis.- 9.5 Mineral descriptions.- 10 Rock color.- 10.1 Descriptions of colors.- 10.2 Factors that influence color.- 11 Environmental analysis.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Field data.- 11.3 Facies analysis of vertical sections.- 11.4 Facies maps.- 11.5 Facies models.- 11.6 Exercise: facies relationship diagram.- 11.7 Exercise: isopach and facies map.- References.
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