Chemotherapy of parasitic diseases

著者

    • Campbell, William C. (William Cecil)
    • Rew, Robert S.

書誌事項

Chemotherapy of parasitic diseases

edited by William C. Campbell and Robert S. Rew

Plenum Press, c1986

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注記

Includes bibliographies and index

内容説明・目次

内容説明

"Have a chew of dulie," said Crubog ..."What is it?" asked Potter, half-suspiciously. "Seaweed. " "Is it good for the virility? ..." "And what is the virility?" asked the old man. "Does it make you more attractive to women?" Potier shouted in his ear. "No. " "What is it good for then?" "WortnS. " "Worms?" "Intestinal worms. You'll never again pass a worm if you eat a fistful of dulse first thing in the morning and last thing at night. " "If it's an anthelmintic, I'll try a spot of it," said Potter. - From Bogmail, a novel by Patrick McGinley (1981) With modern techniques of chemical isolation and structure determination, the old distinction between herbal and chemical remedies has largely been broken down. By chemotherapy we now mean simply the treatment of disease by drugs (the word medicines has unhappily been eclipsed). The distinction made between chemotherapy and non- chemical therapy (e. g. , radiation, physiotherapy, surgical intervention, immu- nomodulation) remains useful despite some minor overlapping. The present work thus deals with drugs and their use in parasitic disease. (Since we are dealing with the treatment of incipient as well as established infection, chemotherapy subsumes chem- oprophylaxis as well as chemotherapeusis per se. ) Definition of parasitism as a biological modus vivendi, although important in itself, need not concern us here. We need simply delimit the scope of the book, and that is easily done.

目次

I. Introduction.- 1 Historical Introduction.- 1. The Mission.- 2. General Evolution.- 3. Experimental Methods.- 3.1. Concept and Control.- 3.2. Some Specific Assay Applications.- 4. Antiprotozoal Agents.- 5. Anthelmintic Agents.- 5.1. Roundworms (Nematoda).- 5.2. Flukes (Trematoda).- 5.3. Tapeworms (Cestoda).- 6. Ectoparasites.- 7. The Past as Prologue.- References.- II. Protozoa.- 2 Chemistry of Antiprotozoal Agents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structural Categories.- 2.1. Organometallic Compounds.- 2.2. Substituted Carbocyclic Compounds.- 2.3. Heterocyclic Compounds.- 3. Properties of Antiprotozoal Agents.- References.- 3 Protozoan Infections of Man: Malaria.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Goals of Malaria Chemotherapy.- 2.1. Prophylaxis.- 2.2. Cure of Acute Malarial Attacks.- 2.3. Malaria Eradication Programs.- 3. Antimalarials and Their Uses.- 3.1. 8-Aminoquinolines: Primaquine.- 3.2. Quinine.- 3.3. Mefloquine.- 3.4. 4-Aminoquinolines: Chloroquine, Amodiaquine, Amopyroquine, and Hydroxychloroquine.- 3.5. Diaminopyrimidines: Pyrimethamine and Trimethoprim.- 3.6. Biguanides (Proguanil and Chlorproguanil) and Triazines (Cycloguanil).- 3.7. PABA Antagonists: Sulfonamides and Sulfones.- 3.8. Antibiotics: Tetracyclines (Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Minocycline) and Clindamycin.- 4. Guidelines for Malaria Chemotherapy.- 4.1. Treatment of P. vivax and P. ovale.- 4.2. Treatment of P. malariae.- 4.3. Treatment of P. falciparum.- 4.4. Treatment of Malaria in Children.- 4.5. Prophylaxis.- 5. Future Directions.- References.- 4 Protozoan Infections of Man: American Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas' Disease).- 2.1. Nifurtimox and Benznidazole.- 2.2. Clinical Strategy.- 2.3. The Future.- 3. Leishmaniasis.- 3.1. Pentavalent Antimonials.- 3.2. Second-Line Drugs.- 3.3. Clinical Strategy for Cutaneous and Mucosal Disease.- 3.4. Clinical Strategy for Visceral Disease.- References.- 5 Protozoan Infections of Man: African Trypanosomiasis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Models.- 2.1. In Vitro.- 2.2. In Vivo.- 3. Currently Available Drugs.- 3.1. CNS- and Bloodstream-Active Drugs.- 3.2. Bloodstream-Active Drugs.- 4. Experimental Trypanocidal Drugs.- 4.1. Nitrofurans.- 4.2. Bloodstream-Active Drugs.- 4.3. Combination Therapy.- References.- 6 Protozoan Infections of Man: Other Infections.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Entamoeba histolytica.- 2.1. Clinical Considerations.- 2.2. Individual Agents.- 3. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba Species.- 3.1. Clinical Considerations.- 3.2. Specific Agents.- 4. Giardia lamblia.- 4.1. Clinical Considerations.- 4.2. Individual Agents.- 5. Trichomonas vaginalis.- 5.1. Clinical Considerations.- 5.2. Individual Agents.- 6. Dientamoeba fragilis.- 6.1. Clinical Considerations.- 6.2. Individual Agents.- 7. Balantidium coli.- 7.1. Clinical Considerations.- 7.2. Individual Agents.- 8. Cryptosporidium.- 8.1. Clinical Considerations.- 8.2. Individual Agents.- 9. Toxoplasma gondii.- 9.1. Clinical Considerations.- 9.2. Individual Agents.- 10. Isospora belli.- 10.1. Clinical Considerations.- 10.2. Individual Agents.- 11. Sarcocystis Species.- 11.1. Clinical Considerations.- 12. Pneumocystis carinii.- 12.1. Clinical Considerations.- 12.2. Individual Agents.- 13. Babesia Species.- 13.1. Clinical Considerations.- References.- 7 Protozoan Infections of Domestic Animals: Coccidian and Related Infections.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Evolution of Present-Day Chemotherapeutic Practices in Coccidiosis Control.- 3. Methods of Drug Testing.- 3.1. Laboratory Trials.- 3.2. Field Trials.- 4. Characteristics of Drugs and Their Limitations.- 4.1. Spectrum of Activity.- 4.2. Specific Activity.- 4.3. Clinical versus Static Mode of Action.- 4.4. Stage in the Life Cycle Most Sensitive to the Drug.- 5. Limitations in the Use of Anticoccidial Drugs.- 5.1. Toxicity.- 5.2. Drug-Resistance Potential.- 5.3. Drug Residues.- 5.4. Limitations in the Technology of Feed Manufacture or Other Means of Drug Delivery.- 5.5. Interference of Anticoccidial Drugs with Other Medicaments.- 5.6. Side Effects, Subclinical Toxicity, and Other Effects of Drugs.- 6. Drugs Used in the Prevention of Coccidiosis in Poultry.- 6.1. Drugs Used in Broiler Chickens.- 6.2. Drugs for Layer Pullets and Other Poultry.- 7. Treatment of Clinical Coccidiosis.- 7.1. Poultry.- 7.2. Mammalian Coccidiosis.- 8. Cryptosporidosis in Domestic Animals.- 8.1. Chemotherapy of Cryptosporidosis.- 9. Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis in Domestic Animals.- References.- 8 Hemoprotozoan Infections of Domestic Animals: Trypanosomiasis, Babesiosis, and Anaplasmosis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Methods.- 3. Trypanosomiasis.- 3.1. Clinical Importance of Chemotherapy and Chemoprophylaxis.- 3.2. Trypanosoma brucei, T. evansi, and T. simiae.- 3.3. T. vivax and T. congolense.- 3.4. New Compounds of Potential Value.- 4. Babesiosis.- 4.1. Clinical Importance of Chemotherapy and Chemoprophylaxis.- 4.2. Treatment of Cattle Babesias.- 4.3. Treatment of Other Babesias of Domestic Animals.- 5. Theileriosis.- 5.1. Clinical Importance of Cattle Theilerias.- 5.2. Tetracyclines in the Chemoprophylaxis and Treatment of Cattle.- 5.3. New Agents in the Chemotherapy of Cattle.- 6. Anaplasmosis.- 6.1. Tetracyclines in the Treatment of Anaplasmosis.- 6.2. Other Compounds in the Treatment of Anaplasmosis.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 9 Modes of Action of Antiprotozoal Agents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Modes of Action of Antiprotozoal Agents.- 2.1. Malaria.- 2.2. Leishmania.- 2.3. Amoebae.- 2.4. Trypanosoma cruzi.- 2.5. African Trypanosomes.- 2.6. Eimeria.- 2.7. Other Protozoa.- 3. Conclusion.- References.- 10 Drug Resistance in Protozoa.- 1. Protozoal Infections of Humans.- 1.1. Toxoplasma gondii.- 1.2. Entamoeba histolytica.- 1.3. Giardia lamblia.- 1.4. Trichomonas vaginalis.- 1.5. Leishmania spp.- 1.6. Trypanosoma cruzi.- 1.7. Trypanosoma brucei rhodiense and T. b. gambiense.- 1.8. Plasmodium spp.- 2. Drug Resistance in Protozoal Infections of Animals.- 2.1. Trypanosoma spp.- 2.2. Coccidian Parasites.- References.- III. Nematodes.- 11 Chemistry of Antinematodal Agents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Benzimidazoles.- 3. Imidazothiazoles.- 4. Tetrahydropyrimidines.- 5. Organophosphates.- 6. Avermectins and Milbemycins.- 7. Miscellaneous Antinematodal Compounds.- 7.1. Piperazines.- 7.2. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons.- 7.3. Phenols.- 7.4. Arsenicals.- 7.5. Ethanolamines.- 7.6. Cyanine Dyes.- 7.7. Isothiocyanates.- 7.8. Other Compounds.- 7.9. Miscellaneous Natural Products.- References.- 12 Nematode Infections of Man: Intestinal Infections.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Principles and Methods.- 3. Major Infections and the Drugs of Choice.- 3.1. Ascariasis.- 3.2. Enterobiasis.- 3.3. Hookworm Infections.- 3.4. Strongyloidiasis.- 3.5. Trichuriasis.- 4. Less Common Intestinal Nematode Infections.- 4.1. Trichinosis.- 4.2. Trichostrongyliasis.- 4.3. Intestinal Capillariasis.- 4.4. Intestinal Angiostrongyliasis.- 4.5. Anisakiasis, Oesophagostomiasis, and Gnathostomiasis.- 5. Anthelmintics and Their Usage.- 5.1. Albendazole.- 5.2 Bephenium Hydroxynaphthoate.- 5.3. Cambendazole.- 5.4. Levamisole.- 5.5. Mebendazole and Flubendazole.- 5.6. Oxantel.- 5.7. Piperazine.- 5.8. Pyrantel Pamoate.- 5.9. Pyrvinium Pamoate.- 5. lO.Thiabendazole.- References.- 13 Nematode Infections of Man: Extraintestinal Infections.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Intralymphatic Filariae.- 2.1 Methods of Detecting Activity against Wuchereria and Brugia.- 2.2. Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia spp. in Man.- 3. Onchocerca volvulus Infections.- 3.1. Screening Methods for Onchocercicidal Drugs.- 3.2. Chemotherapy in Man.- 4. Loa loa.- 5. Other Tissue-Dwelling Nematodes.- 5.1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis.- 5.2. Toxocara canis.- 5.3. Hookworm Infections.- 5.4. Dracunculus medinensis Infection.- 5.5. Trichinella spiralis Infections.- References.- 14 Nematode Infections of Domestic Animals: Gastrointestinal Infections.- 1. Principles of Control.- 2. Routes of Administration.- 3. Testing of Anthelmintic Drugs.- 3.1. Critical Tests.- 3.2. Controlled Tests.- 3.3. Fecal Egg Counts.- 3.4. Tests for Arrested Larvae.- 3.5. Tests for Ovicidal Activity.- 4. Drugs in Current Use.- 4.1. Broad-Spectrum Drugs.- 4.2. Narrow-Spectrum Drugs.- References.- 15 Nematode Infections of Domestic Animals: Extraintestinal Infections.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Principles and Methods.- 3. Treatment of Extraintestinal Nematodes.- 3.1. Filariae.- 3.2. Lungworms.- 3.3. Other Extraintestinal Nematodes of Domestic Animals.- References.- 16 Mode of Action of Antinematodal Drugs.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Important Physiological Requirements of Nematodes.- 2.1. Glucose Metabolism.- 2.2. Neuromuscular Coordination.- 2.3. Microtubular Integrity.- 3. Chemical Classes of Antinematodal Compounds and Their Effects.- 3.1. Phenothiazine.- 3.2. Benzimidazoles.- 3.3. Imidazoles and Other Cholinergic Agonists.- 3.4. Ivermectin.- 3.5. Organophosphates.- 3.6. Piperazine and Diethylcarbamazine.- 3.7. Salicylanilides and Substituted Phenols.- 3.8. Antimonials.- 3.9. Arsenicals.- 3.10. Naphtalene Sulfonic Acid.- 3.11. Isothiocyanate.- 3.12. Cyanine Dyes.- 4. New Areas for Antinematodal Drugs.- References.- 17 Drug Resistance in Nematodes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Detection of Resistance.- 2.1. Indirect Methods.- 2.2. Direct Methods.- 3. Development of Anthelmintic Resistance in the Field.- 3.1. Australia.- 3.2. New Zealand.- 3.3. North America.- 3.4. Britain.- 3.5. Other Countries.- 4. Laboratory Study on Anthelmintic Resistance.- 4.1. Limitations of Laboratory Studies.- 5. Field Studies on Anthelmintic Resistance.- 6. Genetics of Resistance.- 7. Mechanisms of Resistance.- 8. Resistance in Relationship to Worm-Control Practices.- 9. New Developments of Nematode Control.- 9.1. Nonchemotherapeutic.- 9.2. Chemotherapeutic.- 10. Conclusion.- References.- IV. Trematodes.- 18 Chemistry of Antitrematodal Agents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Chemistry of Antischistosomal Agents.- 2.1. Antimony Compounds.- 2.2. The Miracils.- 2.3. Bisanilino Compounds (or Aminophenols).- 2.4. Nitroheterocyclic Compounds.- 2.5. Praziquantel.- 2.6. Miscellaneous Substances.- 3. Chemistry of Fasciolicides.- 3.1. Halogenated Hydrocarbons.- 3.2. Halogenated Phenols and Bisphenols.- 3.3. Salicylanilides.- 3.4. Benzimidazoles.- 3.5. Bisanilino Compounds.- 3.6. Benzene Sulfonamides.- 4. Agents Effective against Dicrocoelium dentriticum.- References.- 19 Trematode Infections of Man.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Schistosomiasis.- 2.1. General Principles.- 2.2. Methods.- 2.3. Antischistosomal Drugs.- 3. Other Trematode Infections.- 3.1. General Principles and Methods.- 3.2. The Drugs.- References.- 20 Trematode Infections of Domestic Animals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. Primary Screening in the Laboratory.- 2.2. Secondary Screening.- 3. General Principles.- 3.1. Application Techniques for Trematode Control.- 3.2. Principles of Chemotherapy.- 3.3. Specificity in Chemotherapy of Trematodes.- 4. The Drugs and Their Uses.- 4.1. Fasciolidae.- 4.2. Dicrocoeliidae.- 4.3. Paramphistomata.- 4.4. Schistosomatidae.- 4.5. Intestinal Trematodes of Birds and Mammals.- References.- 21 Mode of Action of Antitrematodal Agents.- 1. Mode of Action of Trematocidal Agents.- 1.1. Modes of Action of Schistosomicidal Agents.- 1.2. Mode of Action of Fasciolicidal Agents and Agents Effective against Less Common Trematodes.- References.- V. Cestodes.- 22 Chemistry of Anticestodal Agents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Anticestodal Agents.- References.- 23 Cestodal Infections of Man.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Methods.- 2.1. Techniques for Drug Testing against Adult Tapeworms in Vivo.- 2.2. Drug Testing against Adult Tapeworms in Vitro.- 2.3. Drug Testing against Larval Tapeworms in Vivo.- 2.4. Drug Testing against Larval Tapeworms in Vitro.- 2.5. Clinical Trials.- 3. Treatment of Infections Due to Taenia, Diphyllobothrium, Echinococcus, and Hymenolepis.- 3.1. Traditional Remedies.- 3.2. Old Drugs.- 3.3. New Drugs.- 4. Treatment of Taenia solium Infections.- 5. Treatment of Human Cysticercosis.- 5.1. Praziquantel.- 5.2. Metrifonate.- 5.3. Flubendazole.- 6. Treatment of Human Hydatidosis.- 6.1. Pharmacology.- 6.2. Dosage.- 7. Treatment of Less Common Cestode Infections.- 8. Conclusions.- References.- 24 Cestode Infections of Domestic Animals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Tapeworms of Dogs and Cats.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Arecoline Hydrobromide.- 2.3. Bunamidine Hydrochloride.- 2.4. Niclosamide.- 2.5. Substituted Benzimidazoles.- 2.6. Nitroscanate.- 2.7. Praziquantel.- 3. Tapeworms of Sheep and Cattle.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Niclosamide.- 3.3. Bunamidine Hydroxynaphtoate.- 3.4. Benzimidazoles.- 3.5. Praziquantel.- 4. Tapeworms of the Horse.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Niclosamide.- 4.3. Pyrantel Pamoate.- 5. Tapeworms of Birds.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Niclosamide.- 5.3. Praziquantel.- References.- 25 Mode of Action of Anticestodal Agents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Benzimidazoles.- 3. Bithionol.- 4. Bunamidine.- 5. Niclosamide.- 6. Nitroscanate.- 7. Paromomycin.- 8. Praziquantel.- 8.1. Vacuolization of the Tegument.- 8.2. Contraction of the Parasite Musculature.- References.- VI. Arthropods.- 26 Chemistry of Drugs Used against Arthropod Parasites.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Considerations.- 3. Arthropod Antiparasiticals of Current Utility.- 3.1. Inorganics.- 3.2. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons.- 3.3. Organic Phosphates.- 3.4. Carbamates.- 3.5. Pyrethroid and Pyrethroidlike Pesticides.- 3.6. Miscellaneous.- 3.7. Repellents.- References.- 27 Insect Infestations of Man.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Principles and Methods.- 3. Lice.- 3.1. Pediculus humanus capitis, the Head Louse.- 3.2. Pediculus humanus humanus, the Body Louse.- 3.3. Phthirus pubis, the Crab Louse.- 4. Parasitic Fly Larvae (Maggots).- 5. Fleas.- 5.1. Pulex irritans, the Common Flea.- 5.2. Tunga penetrans, the Chigoe or Jigger Flea.- 6. Linguatula and Armillifer: Tongue Worms.- References.- 28 Acarine Infestations of Man.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Scabies.- 2.1. Overview.- 2.2. Individual Agents.- 3. Demodicidosis.- 3.1. Overview.- 3.2. Individual Agents.- 4. Ticks and Chiggers.- References.- 29 Insect Infestations of Domestic Animals.- 1. Introduction and General Principles.- 1.1. Myiases.- 1.2. Lice.- 1.3. Fleas.- 2. Experimental Methods.- 2.1. Myiases.- 2.2. Lice.- 2.3. Fleas.- 3. The Drugs and Their Uses.- 3.1. Myiases.- 3.2. Lice.- 3.3. Fleas.- References.- 30 Acarine Infestation of Domestic Animals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Testing of Acaricides.- 2.1. Laboratory Trials.- 2.2. Field Trials.- 3. Major Acarine Pests of Animals and Their Control.- 3.1. Cattle.- 3.2. Horses.- 3-3. Sheep and Goats.- 3.4. Swine.- 3.5. Poultry.- 3.6. Dogs and Cats.- References.- 31 Mode of Action of Agents Used against Arthropod Parasites.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Compounds Affecting the Nervous System.- 2.1. Pyrethroids.- 2.2. Avermectins.- 2.3. Formamidines.- 2.4. Organophosphates.- 2.5. Carbamates.- 2.6. Lindane (BHC/?-HCH) and Cyclodienes.- 3. Compounds Affecting Bioenergetic Pathways.- 3.1. Arsenic (Trioxide).- 3.2. Rotenone.- References.- 32 Drug Resistance in Arthropod Parasites.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Occurrence of Resistance.- 3. Toxicology.- 3.1. Spectrum of Effect between Drugs.- 4. Mechanisms.- 4.1. Penetration.- 4.2. Detoxication.- 4.3. Insensitivity.- 5. Countermeasures.- 5.1. Eradication of Resistant Strains.- 5.2. Control of Resistant Strains.- 6. Rational Choice of Alternative Drugs.- References.- Appendix: Generic and Proprietary Names of Antiparasitic Drugs.

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