Neuroendocrinology of reproduction : physiology and behavior

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Neuroendocrinology of reproduction : physiology and behavior

edited by Norman T. Adler

Plenum Press, c1981

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Includes bibliographies and index

内容説明・目次

内容説明

The subject of this book is neuroendocrinology, that branch of biological science devoted to the interactions between the two major integrative organ systems of animals-the endocrine and nervous systems. Although this science today reflects a fusion of endocrinology and neurobiology, this synthetic ap- proach is relatively recent. At the beginning of the 20th century, when the British physiologists, Bayliss and Starling, first proposed endocrinology to be an independent field of inquiry, they went to great lengths to establish the autonomy of chemical secretions in general and their independence from nervous control in particular (Bayliss, W. M. , and Starling, E. H. , 1902, The mechanism of pancreatic secretion,]. Physiol. 28:325). They argued with Pav- lov, who said that there was a strong influence of the nervous system on the gastrointestinal phenomena the endocrinologists were studying. For several decades, the English physiologists prevailed, at least in the West; and Pavlov's critique was not taken to heart by the practitioners of the newly emerging discipline of endocrinology. Through the work of Harris, the Scharrers, Sawyer, Everett, and others, there has been something of a scientific detente in the latter half of this century; the hybrid field of neuroendocrinology is now regarded as one of the corner- stones of modern neural science and is of fundamental importance in basic and clinical endocrinology.

目次

I. Chemical Background of Endocrine Function.- 1. Structure of Protein and Peptide Hormones.- I. Introduction.- II. Peptide Hormones.- A. Posterior Pituitary.- B. Hypothalamus.- C. Anterior Pituitary.- D. Pancreas.- E. Blood.- III. Protein Hormones.- A. Anterior Pituitary and Placenta.- IV. Iodoproteins.- V. Catecholamines and Indoleamines.- References.- 2. Histology of the Pituitary.- I. Introduction.- II. Posterior Pituitary.- III. Anterior Pituitary.- References.- 3. Essentials of Steroid Structure, Nomenclature, Reactions, Biosynthesis, and Measurements.- I. Introduction.- II. Basic Steroid Structure and Nomenclature.- A. Cyclohexane and Stereochemistry.- B. The Steroid Nucleus.- C. Essentials of Steroid Nomenclature.- III. Functional Groups in Steroids and Their Chemical Reactions.- A. Simple Functional Groups.- B. Complex Functional Groups.- C. Steroid Sulfates and Glucuronides.- IV. Enzymes and Steroid Transformations.- A. Hydroxylases.- B. Dehydrogenases.- C. Lyases.- D. Conjugation and Deconjugation Enzymes.- E. Miscellaneous Enzymes.- V. Biosynthesis of Steroids.- A. Biosynthesis of Pregnenolone.- B. Biosynthesis of Progestins.- C. Biosynthesis of Androgens.- D. Biosynthesis of Estrogens.- VI. Selected Methods of Steroid Measurement.- A. Double Isotope Derivatives.- B. Gas-Liquid Chromatography.- C. Saturation Analysis.- VII. Summary.- References.- 4. Neurotransmitter Systems: Anatomy and Pharmacology.- I. Introduction.- II. Methodology of Psychopharmacology.- A. Mode of Action of Neuropharmacological Agents.- B. Psychopharmacological Techniques.- III. Neuroanatomy of Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Pathways.- A. The Norepinephrine Systems.- B. The Epinephrine System.- C. The Dopamine Systems.- D. The Serotonin Systems.- E. The Acetylcholine Systems.- F. The Peptidergic Systems.- References.- II. Development of Reproductive Function.- 5. Hormonal Actions on the Sexual Differentiation of the Genitalia and the Gonadotropin-Regulating Systems.- I. Brief History of the Problem.- II. Normal Embryogenesis of the Genital System.- A. Sex Determination and Differentiation of the Gonads.- B. Differentiation of the Genital Ducts.- C. Differentiation of the Urogenital Sinus and Genital Tubercle.- D. Differentiation of the Mammary Glands.- III. The Effects of Exogenous Estrogens on Embryogenesis of the Genital System.- IV. Disturbances in Embryogenesis of the Genital System.- A. Disturbances of the Sex Determination Process.- B. Disturbances of Gonadal Differentiation.- C. Disturbances of Androgen Action.- D. Disturbances of Mullerian Duct Inhibitor Action.- V. Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Systems.- A. Age Factors in Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Patterns.- B. Steroidal Factors in Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Patterns.- C. Site of Action of Hormones Involved in Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Patterns.- D. Mechanisms for the Protection of Female Fetuses from Masculinizing Agents.- VI. Summary.- References.- 6. Perinatal Hormones and Their Role in the Development of Sexually Dimorphic Behaviors.- I. Brief History of the Problem.- II. Prenatal Hormones and Their Effects on the Sex Behavior of Adult Guinea Pigs.- III. Eight Questions Regarding "Organizing" Effects of Hormones.- A. Are There "Organizing" and "Activating" Effects of Hormones? A Matter of Terminology.- B. Are There Critical Periods or Periods of Maximal Susceptibility to Perinatal Hormones?.- C. Are There Parallels between Genital Differentiation and Neural Organization?.- D. Organizational Effects-Structural or Functional?.- E. Perinatal Hormones-Are Their Effects on the Nervous System General or Localized?.- F. What Is the Effective Perinatal Hormone-I. Chemical Background of Endocrine Function.- 1. Structure of Protein and Peptide Hormones.- I. Introduction.- II. Peptide Hormones.- A. Posterior Pituitary.- B. Hypothalamus.- C. Anterior Pituitary.- D. Pancreas.- E. Blood.- III. Protein Hormones.- A. Anterior Pituitary and Placenta.- IV. Iodoproteins.- V. Catecholamines and Indoleamines.- References.- 2. Histology of the Pituitary.- I. Introduction.- II. Posterior Pituitary.- III. Anterior Pituitary.- References.- 3. Essentials of Steroid Structure, Nomenclature, Reactions, Biosynthesis, and Measurements.- I. Introduction.- II. Basic Steroid Structure and Nomenclature.- A. Cyclohexane and Stereochemistry.- B. The Steroid Nucleus.- C. Essentials of Steroid Nomenclature.- III. Functional Groups in Steroids and Their Chemical Reactions.- A. Simple Functional Groups.- B. Complex Functional Groups.- C. Steroid Sulfates and Glucuronides.- IV. Enzymes and Steroid Transformations.- A. Hydroxylases.- B. Dehydrogenases.- C. Lyases.- D. Conjugation and Deconjugation Enzymes.- E. Miscellaneous Enzymes.- V. Biosynthesis of Steroids.- A. Biosynthesis of Pregnenolone.- B. Biosynthesis of Progestins.- C. Biosynthesis of Androgens.- D. Biosynthesis of Estrogens.- VI. Selected Methods of Steroid Measurement.- A. Double Isotope Derivatives.- B. Gas-Liquid Chromatography.- C. Saturation Analysis.- VII. Summary.- References.- 4. Neurotransmitter Systems: Anatomy and Pharmacology.- I. Introduction.- II. Methodology of Psychopharmacology.- A. Mode of Action of Neuropharmacological Agents.- B. Psychopharmacological Techniques.- III. Neuroanatomy of Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Pathways.- A. The Norepinephrine Systems.- B. The Epinephrine System.- C. The Dopamine Systems.- D. The Serotonin Systems.- E. The Acetylcholine Systems.- F. The Peptidergic Systems.- References.- II. Development of Reproductive Function.- 5. Hormonal Actions on the Sexual Differentiation of the Genitalia and the Gonadotropin-Regulating Systems.- I. Brief History of the Problem.- II. Normal Embryogenesis of the Genital System.- A. Sex Determination and Differentiation of the Gonads.- B. Differentiation of the Genital Ducts.- C. Differentiation of the Urogenital Sinus and Genital Tubercle.- D. Differentiation of the Mammary Glands.- III. The Effects of Exogenous Estrogens on Embryogenesis of the Genital System.- IV. Disturbances in Embryogenesis of the Genital System.- A. Disturbances of the Sex Determination Process.- B. Disturbances of Gonadal Differentiation.- C. Disturbances of Androgen Action.- D. Disturbances of Mullerian Duct Inhibitor Action.- V. Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Systems.- A. Age Factors in Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Patterns.- B. Steroidal Factors in Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Patterns.- C. Site of Action of Hormones Involved in Differentiation of Gonadotropin Release Patterns.- D. Mechanisms for the Protection of Female Fetuses from Masculinizing Agents.- VI. Summary.- References.- 6. Perinatal Hormones and Their Role in the Development of Sexually Dimorphic Behaviors.- I. Brief History of the Problem.- II. Prenatal Hormones and Their Effects on the Sex Behavior of Adult Guinea Pigs.- III. Eight Questions Regarding "Organizing" Effects of Hormones.- A. Are There "Organizing" and "Activating" Effects of Hormones? A Matter of Terminology.- B. Are There Critical Periods or Periods of Maximal Susceptibility to Perinatal Hormones?.- C. Are There Parallels between Genital Differentiation and Neural Organization?.- D. Organizational Effects-Structural or Functional?.- E. Perinatal Hormones-Are Their Effects on the Nervous System General or Localized?.- F. What Is the Effective Perinatal Hormone-Is It Testosterone or a Metabolite of Testosterone?.- G. Do Perinatal Hormones Influence Noncopulatory as Well as Copulatory Behavior?.- H. Do Prenatal Hormones Influence Behavior of Primates?.- IV. Summary.- References.- 7. Early Organizational Effects of Hormones: An Evolutionary Perspective.- I. Introduction.- A. Definitions and a Note on Taxonomy.- B. Research Questions, Methods, and Strategies.- II. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Invertebrates..- A. Coelenterates, Nemerteans, and Molluscs.- B. Insects.- C. Crustaceans.- D. Summary.- III. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Fish (Osteichthyes).- A. Morphology.- B. Behavior.- C. Summary.- IV. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Amphibians..- A. Gonads.- B. Other Sex Structures.- C. Behavior.- D. Summary.- V. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Reptiles.- A. Gonads.- B. Other Sex Structures.- C. Behavior.- D. Summary.- VI. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Birds.- A. Gonads.- B. Other Sex Structures.- C. Ovulation and Oviposition.- D. Behavior.- E. Summary.- VII. Overview.- A. Common Factors in Sex Differentiation (Including Mammalian).- B. Species Differences.- C. Evolution of Sex Differentiation.- D. Areas for Future Research.- E. Conclusions.- References.- 8. Puberty.- I. Introduction.- II. Neuroendocrine Foundations of the Physiology of Puberty.- III. The Problem of Puberty.- A. Ovulatory Hormone Release.- B. The Hypothalamus.- C. Steroid Feedback.- D. Gonadal Maturation.- E. Body Growth.- F. Extrahypothalamic Structures Influencing Puberty.- G. Role of Environmental Cues in Regulating the Onset of Puberty.- H. Pheromonal Influences.- I. Precocious Puberty and Pseudopuberty in Man.- References.- III. Control of Reproduction on the Organismic and Physiological Levels of Organization.- 9. Experimental Analysis of Hormone Actions on the Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituitary, and Ovary.- I. Brief History of the Problem.- II. The Long-Loop System.- A. General Orientation.- B. Steroids Act on the Anterior Hypothalamic-Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and the Preoptic Area.- C. Steroids Act on the Medial Basal Hypothalamus to Influence Pituitary Function.- D. Steroids Act Directly on the Anterior Pituitary.- E. Hypothalamic Hormones Affect Pituitary Hormones...- F. Pituitary Hormones Act on Gonadal Tissue.- III. Pituitary Hormones Affect Pituitary Hormone Secretion-The Short-Loop System.- IV. Releasing Factors Affect Releasing Factor Production-The Ultrashort Loop.- V. Ovarian Hormones Affect the Ovary.- VI. Conclusions.- References.- 10. Estrous Cyclicity in Mammals.- I. Introduction.- II. Rat Estrous Cycles-Ovarian Aspect.- A. Indirect Assessments of Cyclic Release of Ovarian Hormones.- B. Direct Assessments of Cyclic Release of Ovarian Hormones.- III. Rat Estrous Cycles-Pituitary Aspect.- A. Indirect Assessments of Cyclic Release of Pituitary Hormones.- B. Direct Assessments of Cyclic Release of Pituitary Hormones.- IV. Rat Estrous Cycles-Hypothalamic Aspect.- V. The Estrous Cycle-Putting It All Together.- VI. Modeling of the Rat Estrous Cycle.- VII. Hamster Estrous Cycles.- VIII. Guinea Pig Estrous Cycles.- IX. Sheep Estrous Cycles.- A. Basic Patterns of Secretion of Ovarian and Pituitary Hormones.- B. A More Detailed Look at Hormones a Few Days before and at the Periovulatory Period.- C. A More Detailed Look at the Luteal Phase.- D. The Anestrous State.- X. Dog Estrous Cycles.- XI. Rhesus Menstrual Cycles.- XII. Reflex Ovulators-Rabbits.- XIII. Reflex Ovulators-Are Their Effects on the Nervous System General or Localized?.- F. What Is the Effective Perinatal Hormone-Is It Testosterone or a Metabolite of Testosterone?.- G. Do Perinatal Hormones Influence Noncopulatory as Well as Copulatory Behavior?.- H. Do Prenatal Hormones Influence Behavior of Primates?.- IV. Summary.- References.- 7. Early Organizational Effects of Hormones: An Evolutionary Perspective.- I. Introduction.- A. Definitions and a Note on Taxonomy.- B. Research Questions, Methods, and Strategies.- II. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Invertebrates..- A. Coelenterates, Nemerteans, and Molluscs.- B. Insects.- C. Crustaceans.- D. Summary.- III. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Fish (Osteichthyes).- A. Morphology.- B. Behavior.- C. Summary.- IV. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Amphibians..- A. Gonads.- B. Other Sex Structures.- C. Behavior.- D. Summary.- V. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Reptiles.- A. Gonads.- B. Other Sex Structures.- C. Behavior.- D. Summary.- VI. Differentiation of Reproductive Function in Birds.- A. Gonads.- B. Other Sex Structures.- C. Ovulation and Oviposition.- D. Behavior.- E. Summary.- VII. Overview.- A. Common Factors in Sex Differentiation (Including Mammalian).- B. Species Differences.- C. Evolution of Sex Differentiation.- D. Areas for Future Research.- E. Conclusions.- References.- 8. Puberty.- I. Introduction.- II. Neuroendocrine Foundations of the Physiology of Puberty.- III. The Problem of Puberty.- A. Ovulatory Hormone Release.- B. The Hypothalamus.- C. Steroid Feedback.- D. Gonadal Maturation.- E. Body Growth.- F. Extrahypothalamic Structures Influencing Puberty.- G. Role of Environmental Cues in Regulating the Onset of Puberty.- H. Pheromonal Influences.- I. Precocious Puberty and Pseudopuberty in Man.- References.- III. Control of Reproduction on the Organismic and Physiological Levels of Organization.- 9. Experimental Analysis of Hormone Actions on the Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituitary, and Ovary.- I. Brief History of the Problem.- II. The Long-Loop System.- A. General Orientation.- B. Steroids Act on the Anterior Hypothalamic-Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and the Preoptic Area.- C. Steroids Act on the Medial Basal Hypothalamus to Influence Pituitary Function.- D. Steroids Act Directly on the Anterior Pituitary.- E. Hypothalamic Hormones Affect Pituitary Hormones...- F. Pituitary Hormones Act on Gonadal Tissue.- III. Pituitary Hormones Affect Pituitary Hormone Secretion-The Short-Loop System.- IV. Releasing Factors Affect Releasing Factor Production-The Ultrashort Loop.- V. Ovarian Hormones Affect the Ovary.- VI. Conclusions.- References.- 10. Estrous Cyclicity in Mammals.- I. Introduction.- II. Rat Estrous Cycles-Ovarian Aspect.- A. Indirect Assessments of Cyclic Release of Ovarian Hormones.- B. Direct Assessments of Cyclic Release of Ovarian Hormones.- III. Rat Estrous Cycles-Pituitary Aspect.- A. Indirect Assessments of Cyclic Release of Pituitary Hormones.- B. Direct Assessments of Cyclic Release of Pituitary Hormones.- IV. Rat Estrous Cycles-Hypothalamic Aspect.- V. The Estrous Cycle-Putting It All Together.- VI. Modeling of the Rat Estrous Cycle.- VII. Hamster Estrous Cycles.- VIII. Guinea Pig Estrous Cycles.- IX. Sheep Estrous Cycles.- A. Basic Patterns of Secretion of Ovarian and Pituitary Hormones.- B. A More Detailed Look at Hormones a Few Days before and at the Periovulatory Period.- C. A More Detailed Look at the Luteal Phase.- D. The Anestrous State.- X. Dog Estrous Cycles.- XI. Rhesus Menstrual Cycles.- XII. Reflex Ovulators-Rabbits.- XIII. Reflex Ovulators-Cats.- XIV. Summary.- References.- 11. How the Brain Mediates Ovarian Responses to Environmental Stimuli: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology.- I. Introduction.- II. Environmental Influences on Hormone Secretion.- A. Visual and Auditory.- B. Tactile.- C. Olfactory.- III. How Neural Stimuli Produce Hormonal Changes.- A. Role of the Anterior versus Posterior Divisions of the Pituitary Gland.- B. The Hypothalamus as the Final Common Pathway to the Pituitary Gland.- IV. Extrahypothalamic Influences on Hormone Secretion.- A. Olfactory Bulbs.- B. Septum.- C. Amygdala.- D. Hippocampus.- E. Mesencephalic Reticular Formation.- References.- 12 Seasonal Reproduction: Photoperiodism and Biological Clocks.- I. Physiological Mediators.- A. Photoperiod and Seasonality.- B. Photosensitivity and Photorefractoriness.- C. The Pineal Gland and Annual Reproductive Cycles in the Syrian Hamster.- D. The Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Annual Reproductive Cycles.- E. Annual Rhythms in Other Physiological Functions.- II. Circadian Rhythms and Day Length Measurement.- A. Biological Time Measurement.- B. Models for the Photoperiodic Clock.- C. Entrainment of Circadian Rhythms.- D. Entrainment and Photoperiodic Induction by Skeleton Photoperiods.- E. Entrainment and Photoperiodic Induction when T Is Close to ?.- F. Entrainment and Induction by 24-Hour LD Cycles with Different Photoperiods.- G. Photoperiodic Time Measurement and the Regulation of the Annual Cycle.- III. Summary and Outlook.- References.- IV. Control of Reproduction on the Cellular and Chemical Level.- 13. CNS Control of the Pituitary: Neurochemistry of Hypothalamic Releasing and Inhibitory Hormones.- I. Introduction.- II. Evidence for Hypothalamic Control of Anterior Pituitary.- Hormone Release.- III. The Neurohumoral Hypothesis of Control of Anterior Pituitary Hormone Secretion.- IV. Hypothalamic Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones.- V. Mechanism of Action of Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones on the Pituitary.- VI. Localization of Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones within the Brain.- VII. Factors Affecting Responsiveness of the Adenohypophysis to Releasing and Inhibiting Factors.- VIII. Putative Synaptic Transmitters Involved in Controlling the Release of Releasing Hormones.- IX. The Role of Prostaglandins in Controlling the Release of Releasing Factors and in Stimulating the Release of Pituitary Hormones by Direct Action on the Pituitary Gland.- X. Extrapituitary Actions of Releasing Factors.- XI. Summary.- References.- 14. The Neurochemical Control of Mating Behavior.- I. Introduction.- II. Neuropharmacology of Female Sexual Behavior.- A. Introduction.- B. Monoamines and Female Sexual Behavior.- C. Serotonin and Female Sexual Behavior.- D. Dopamine and Female Sexual Behavior.- E. Norepinephrine and Female Sexual Behavior.- F. Acetylcholine and Female Sexual Behavior.- G. Monamines and Lordosis in Male Rats.- H. Peptides and Lordosis.- I. Monoamines and Sexual Motivation.- J. Monoamines and Maternal Behavior.- K. Summary.- III. Neuropharmacology of Male Sexual Behavior.- A. Introduction.- B. Monoamines and Male Sexual Behavior.- C. Serotonin and Male Sexual Behavior.- D. Dopamine and Male Sexual Behavior.- E. Norepinephrine and Male Sexual Behavior.- F. Acetylcholine and Male Sexual Behavior.- G. Peptides and Male Sexual Behavior.- H. Monoamines and Mounting in Female Rats.- I. Monoamines and Sexual Behavior in Humans.- J. Summary.- IV. Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Central Neurotransmitters.- A. Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone.- B. Effects of Testosterone.- C. Possible Mechanisms of Hormone-Induced Alterations in Neurotransmitter Function.- V. Summary and Review.- References.- 15. Cellular Biochemistry of Hormone Action in Brain and Pituitary.- I. Introduction.- II. Cellular Mechanisms of Hormone Action.- III. Methods for Measuring Receptors.- A. Cell Surface Receptors for Releasing Hormones in Pituitary as Revealed by Biochemical Analysis.- B. Steroid Hormone Receptors in Brain and Pituitary.- C. Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Pituitary and Brain.- IV. Functional Aspects of Hormone-Receptor Interactions in Mature Neuroendocrine Tissues.- A. Releasing Hormones.- B. Thyroid Hormone.- C. Steroid Hormones: Topography of Receptors.- D. Steroid Hormones: Functioning of Receptors.- V. Development Actions of Hormones.- A. Thyroid Hormone.- B. Gonadal Steroids.- VI. Conclusion.- References.- 16. Autoradiographic Technique for Steroid Hormone Localization: Application to the Vertebrate Brain.- I. Introduction.- II. Procedures for Production of Steroid Hormone Autoradiograms.- A. Preparation of Emulsion-Coated Slides.- B. Isotope Administration, Brain Removal, and Freezing..- C. Sectioning and Mounting Autoradiograms in the Darkroom.- D. Exposure, Developing, and Staining Procedures.- E. Controls for Autoradiographic Artifact.- III. Analysis of Autoradiograms.- IV. Experimental Findings after Steroid Autoradiography by the Technique Described.- A. Concentration of Estradiol and Testosterone by Neurons Is a Common Phenomenon among Vertebrates.- B. Striking Similarities across Species in the Neuroanatomical Distribution of Sex-Hormone-Concentrating Cells.- C. Estradiol- and Testosterone-Concentrating Neurons Are Found in Brain Regions That Have Been Implicated in the Control of Hormone-Dependent Functions.- References.- 17. Electrophysiological Effects of Steroid Hormones in Brain Tissue.- I. Introduction.- II. Estradiol.- III. Testosterone.- IV. Corticosterone.- V. Progesterone.- VI. Outlook.- References.- Appendix: A Gross Anatomical Study of the Peripheral Nerves Associated with Reproductive Function in the Female Albino Rat.- I. Introduction.- II. Methods.- III. Results.- A. Femoral Nerve.- B. Genitofemoral Nerve.- C. Pelvic and Hypogastric Nerves.- D. Pudendal and Caudal Cutaneous Femoral Nerves.- References.

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