Advances in controlled clinical inhalation studies

著者

    • Bates, D. V.
    • Fabel, H.
    • Utell, M. J.
    • International Inhalation Symposium

書誌事項

Advances in controlled clinical inhalation studies

U. Mohr, editor-in-chief ; D.V. Bates, H. Fabel, M.J. Utell, editors

(ILSI monographs)

Springer-Verlag, c1993

  • : gw

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注記

"Represents scientific work presented at the 3rd International Inhalation Symposium in Hannover, FRG"--Back cover

Includes bibliographical references and index

内容説明・目次

内容説明

Advances in Controlled Clinical Inhalation Studies represents scientific work presented at the 3rd International Inhalation Symposium held 1991 in Hannover, FRG. The symposium covered the new developments in this field of research. The main pollutants of interest were acid aerosols, fog, and indoor pollutants, while with regard to biological effects, an emphasis was placed on immunotoxicological and biochemical parameters. Tests on high risk groups were also considered. Initial chapters describe the outdoor environment as well as indoor air, measurement and quality - both at home and in the workplace. Besides methods for clinical inhalation and assessing personal exposure, new methodologies are particularly presented. Further chapters focus on the relevance of clinical data for regulatory decisions.

目次

I. Symposium Presentation.- The Emergence of Controlled Human Exposure Studies.- Section 1. The Outdoor Environment in Europe.- Trend of Air Quality in North Rhine-Westphalia (Rhine-Ruhr Area) During the Past 20 Years.- Air Pollution in the Former German Democratic Republic: Consequences for Health Control.- The Outdoor Environment in North America.- Exposure to Oxidant Gases and Acidic Particles in the United States.- Section 2. Indoor Air: Home and Workplace.- Investigation of Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Climate Chambers: Emissions from Textile Floor Coverings.- Dust Measurements at Workplaces: State of the Art and Future Demands.- Health Effects of Indoor Air Exposures.- Inhalation Studies in Investigation of the Sick Building Syndrome.- Section 3. Assessing Personal Exposure.- Personal Exposure Assessment: Implications for Clinical Studies of Inhaled Pollutants.- Regional Deposition of Inhaled Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract.- Calculation of Acid Aerosol Dose.- Section 4. Clinical Inhalation Methodology.- Generation of Complex Aerosols.- Assessment of Ambient Exposures and Their Effects on Health in Chambers.- Susceptible Populations: Lessons from Controlled Exposure Studies of Inhaled Pollutants.- Inhalation of Pollutants and Pollutant Mixtures in Subjects with Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness.- Section 5. New Methodologies.- Controlled Clinical Inhalation Studies with Environmental Air Pollutants at Concentrations Commonly Found in the Ambient Air.- Time- and Dose-Dependent Cellular and Biochemical Changes in Response to Ozone Exposure.- Regeneration, Differentiation, and Neoplastic Transformation of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells.- Infectivity Models in Clinical Inhalation Studies.- Does the Pulmonary Surfactant System Yield Meaningful Parameters in Inhalation Toxicity Studies? A Review.- New Approaches to Evaluating the Pulmonary Effects of Controlled Inhalation Exposures in Human Volunteers.- Section 6. Clinical Data and Regulatory Decisions.- Meta-analysis and "Effective Dose" Revisited.- Regulating Indoor Air.- Perspective on the Regulator's Need for Future Clinical Studies.- II. Poster Presentations.- Use of Questionnaires for Assessment of Exposure to Airborne Pollutants.- Disorders in the Olfactory Function and Injury of the Upper Airways of Exposed Workers in Copper-Producing Works.- Elevated Bioaerosols in Manufactured/Conventional Homes.- Single-Breath Bolus Exposure for Noninvasive Determination of Ozone Dose Distribution.- Problems of Regulating Outdoor Ozone Levels.- Inhalation Studies with Airborne Particulates in Rodents: Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects on Alveolar Macrophages and Bone Marrow Cells.- Assessment of Pollutant-Induced Impairment of the Pulmonary Surfactant System by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.- Assessment of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Exposure in the Chemical Industry by Biological Monitoring.- Assessment by Aerosol Recovery Technique of Site of Airway Constriction During Intravenous Histamine Challenge.- Attempted Selective Deposition of Aerosols Using Differently Sized Particles in Man.- Acute Effects of Ambient Ozone in Physically Active Adults.- Respiratory Injuries in Workers from the Coke Chemical Industry.- Aerosol-Derived Airway Dimensions of Dog Lungs: Comparison of Bolus and Single-Breath Techniques.- Nonoccupational Exposure to Benzene.- Comparative Investigation of Genotoxic and Nongenotoxic Mechanisms and Their Relevance in Carcinogenesis Induced by Airborne Particulates and Automobile Exhaust Particulates.- Gestational Inhalation of Indoor Air Pollution Alters Neonatal Reflex Development and Fetal Hematology.- Aerosol Deposition Pattern of Technetium-99m-Labeled Fenoterol After Inhalation from Three Devices in Healthy Volunteers.- Comparison of Bronchospasmolytic Effects of 200 ?g Fenoterol After Inhalation with Respimat and Metered Dose Inhaler.

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