The art of analog layout

書誌事項

The art of analog layout

Alan Hastings

Pearson/Prentice Hall, c2006

2nd international ed

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 5

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注記

Includes index

Pearson international edition -- Cover

内容説明・目次

内容説明

For Electrical Engineering courses in analog layout or professional layout designers. This text covers the issues involved in successfully laying out analog integrated circuits. Hastings provides clear guidance and does not stress theoretical physics or mathematical analysis of layouts. He emphasizes cross- sections of devices and carrier-based models of device operation as compared to the more common geometric and schematic representation of devices.

目次

Preface to the Second Edition xvii Preface to the First Edition xix Acknowledgments xxi 1 Device Physics 1 1.1 Semiconductors 1 1.1.1. Generation and Recombination 4 1.1.2. Extrinsic Semiconductors 6 1.1.3. Diffusion and Drift 9 1.2 PN Junctions 11 1.2.1. Depletion Regions 11 1.2.2. PN Diodes 13 1.2.3. Schottky Diodes 16 1.2.4. Zener Diodes 18 1.2.5. Ohmic Contacts 19 1.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 21 1.3.1. Beta 23 1.3.2. I-V Characteristics 24 1.4 MOS Transistors 25 1.4.1. Threshold Voltage 27 1.4.2. I-V Characteristics 29 1.5 JFET Transistors 32 1.6 Summary 34 1.7 Exercises 35 2 Semiconductor Fabrication 37 2.1 Silicon Manufacture 37 2.1.1. Crystal Growth 38 2.1.2. Wafer Manufacturing 39 2.1.3. The Crystal Structure of Silicon 39 2.2 Photolithography 41 2.2.1. Photoresists 41 2.2.2. Photomasks and Reticles 42 2.2.3. Patterning 43 2.3 Oxide Growth and Removal 43 2.3.1. Oxide Growth and Deposition 44 2.3.2. Oxide Removal 45 2.3.3. Other Effects of Oxide Growth and Removal 47 2.3.4. Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS) 49 2.4 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 50 2.4.1. Diffusion 51 2.4.2. Other Effects of Diffusion 53 2.4.3. Ion Implantation 55 2.5 Silicon Deposition and Etching 57 2.5.1. Epitaxy 57 2.5.2. Polysilicon Deposition 59 2.5.3. Dielectric Isolation 60 2.6 Metallization 62 2.6.1. Deposition and Removal of Aluminum 63 2.6.2. Refractory Barrier Metal 65 2.6.3. Silicidation 67 2.6.4. Interlevel Oxide, Interlevel Nitride, and Protective Overcoat 69 2.6.5. Copper Metallization 71 2.7 Assembly 73 2.7.1. Mount and Bond 74 2.7.2. Packaging 77 2.8 Summary 78 2.9 Exercises 78 3 Representative Processes 80 3.1 Standard Bipolar 81 3.1.1. Essential Features 81 3.1.2. Fabrication Sequence 82 Starting Material 82 N-Buried Layer 82 Epitaxial Growth 83 Isolation Diffusion 83 83 Base Implant 84 Emitter Diffusion 84 Contact 85 Metallization 85 Protective Overcoat 86 3.1.3. Available Devices 86 NPN Transistors 86 PNP Transistors 88 Resistors 90 Capacitors 92 3.1.4. Process Extensions 93 Up-Down Isolation 93 Double-Level Metal 94 Schottky Diodes 94 High-Sheet Resistors 94 Super-Beta Transistors 96 3.2 Polysilicon-Gate CMOS 96 3.2.1. Essential Features 97 3.2.2. Fabrication Sequence 98 Starting Material 98 Epitaxial Growth 98 N-Well Diffusion 98 Inverse Moat 99 Channel Stop Implants 100 LOCOS Processing and Dummy Gate Oxidation 100 Threshold Adjust 101 Deep-N+ Polysilicon Deposition and Patterning 102 Source/Drain Implants 102 Contacts 103 Metallization 103 Protective Overcoat 103 3.2.3. Available Devices 104 NMOS Transistors 104 PMOS Transistors 106 Substrate PNP Transistors 107 Resistors 107 Capacitors 109 3.2.4. Process Extensions 109 Double-Level Metal 110 Shallow Trench Isolation 110 Silicidation 111 Lightly Doped Drain (LDD) Transistors 112 Extended-Drain, High-Voltage Transistors 113 3.3 Analog BiCMOS 114 3.3.1. Essential Features 115 3.3.2. Fabrication Sequence 116 Starting Material 116 N-Buried Layer 116 Epitaxial Growth 117 N-Well Diffusion and 117 Base Implant 118 Inverse Moat 118 Channel Stop Implants 119 LOCOS Processing and Dummy Gate Oxidation 119 Threshold Adjust 119 Polysilicon Deposition and Pattern 120 Source/Drain Implants 120 Metallization and Protective Overcoat 120 Process Comparison 121 3.3.3. Available Devices 121 NPN Transistors 121 PNP Transistors 123 Resistors 125 3.3.4. Process Extensions 125 Advanced Metal Systems 126 Dielectric Isolation 126 3.4 Summary 130 3.5 Exercises 131 4 Failure Mechanisms 133 4.1 Electrical Overstress 133 4.1.1. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 134 Effects 135 Preventative Measures 135 4.1.2. Electromigration 136 Effects 136 Preventative Measures 137 Deep-N+ 4.1.3. Dielectric Breakdown 138 Effects 138 Preventative Measures 139 4.1.4. The Antenna Effect 141 Effects 141 Preventative Measures 142 4.2 Contamination 143 4.2.1. Dry Corrosion 144 Effects 144 Preventative Measures 145 4.2.2. Mobile Ion Contamination 145 Effects 145 Preventative Measures 146 4.3 Surface Effects 148 4.3.1. Hot Carrier Injection 148 Effects 148 Preventative Measures 150 4.3.2. Zener Walkout 151 Effects 151 Preventative Measures 152 4.3.3. Avalanche-Induced Beta Degradation 153 Effects 153 Preventative Measures 154 4.3.4. Negative Bias Temperature Instability 154 Effects 155 Preventative Measures 155 4.3.5. Parasitic Channels and Charge Spreading 156 Effects 156 Preventative Measures (Standard Bipolar) 159 Preventative Measures (CMOS and BiCMOS) 162 4.4 Parasitics 164 4.4.1. Substrate Debiasing 165 Effects 166 Preventative Measures 167 4.4.2. Minority-Carrier Injection 169 Effects 169 Preventative Measures (Substrate Injection) 172 Preventative Measures (Cross-Injection) 178 4.4.3. Substrate Influence 180 Effects 180 Preventative Measures 180 4.5 Summary 183 4.6 Exercises 183 5 Resistors 185 5.1 Resistivity and Sheet Resistance 185 5.2 Resistor Layout 187 5.3 Resistor Variability 191 5.3.1. Process Variation 191 5.3.2. Temperature Variation 192 5.3.3. Nonlinearity 193 5.3.4. Contact Resistance 196 5.4 Resistor Parasitics 197 5.5 Comparison of Available Resistors 200 5.5.1. Base Resistors 200 5.5.2. Emitter Resistors 201 5.5.3. Base Pinch Resistors 202 5.5.4. High-Sheet Resistors 202 5.5.5. Epi Pinch Resistors 205 5.5.6. Metal Resistors 206 5.5.7. Poly Resistors 208 5.5.8. NSD and PSD Resistors 211 5.5.9. N-Well Resistors 211 5.5.10. Thin-Film Resistors 212 5.6 Adjusting Resistor Values 213 5.6.1. Tweaking Resistors 213 Sliding Contacts 214 Sliding Heads 215 Trombone Slides 215 Metal Options 215 5.6.2. Trimming Resistors 216 Fuses 216 Zener Zaps 219 EPROM Trims 221 Laser Trims 222 5.7 Summary 223 5.8 Exercises 224 6 Capacitors and Inductors 226 6.1 Capacitance 226 6.1.1. Capacitor Variability 232 Process Variation 232 Voltage Modulation and Temperature Variation 233 6.1.2. Capacitor Parasitics 235 6.1.3. Comparison of Available Capacitors 237 Base-Emitter Junction Capacitors 237 MOS Capacitors 239 Poly-Poly Capacitors 241 Stack Capacitors 243 Lateral Flux Capacitors 245 High-Permittivity Capacitors 246 6.2 Inductance 246 6.2.1. Inductor Parasitics 248 6.2.2. Inductor Construction 250 Guidelines for Integrating Inductors 251 6.3 Summary 252 6.4 Exercises 253 7 Matching of Resistors and Capacitors 254 7.1 Measuring Mismatch 254 7.2 Causes of Mismatch 257 7.2.1. Random Variation 257 Capacitors 258 Resistors 258 7.2.2. Process Biases 260 7.2.3. Interconnection Parasitics 261 7.2.4. Pattern Shift 263 7.2.5. Etch Rate Variations 265 7.2.6. Photolithographic Effects 267 7.2.7. Diffusion Interactions 268 7.2.8. Hydrogenation 270 7.2.9. Mechanical Stress and Package Shift 271 7.2.10. Stress Gradients 274 Piezoresistivity 274 Gradients and Centroids 275 Common-Centroid Layout 277 Location and Orientation 281 7.2.11. Temperature Gradients and Thermoelectrics 283 Thermal Gradients 285 Thermoelectric Effects 287 7.2.12. Electrostatic Interactions 288 Voltage Modulation 288 Charge Spreading 292 Dielectric Polarization 293 Dielectric Relaxation 294 7.3 Rules for Device Matching 295 7.3.1. Rules for Resistor Matching 296 7.3.2. Rules for Capacitor Matching 300 7.4 Summary 303 7.5 Exercises 304 8 Bipolar Transistors 306 8.1 Topics in Bipolar Transistor Operation 306 8.1.1. Beta Rolloff 308 8.1.2. Avalanche Breakdown 308 8.1.3. Thermal Runaway and Secondary Breakdown 310 8.1.4. Saturation in NPN Transistors 312 8.1.5. Saturation in Lateral PNP Transistors 315 8.1.6. Parasitics of Bipolar Transistors 318 8.2 Standard Bipolar Small-Signal Transistors 320 8.2.1. The Standard Bipolar NPN Transistor 320 Construction of Small-Signal NPN Transistors 322 8.2.2. The Standard Bipolar Substrate PNP Transistor 326 Construction of Small-Signal Substrate PNP Transistors 328 8.2.3. The Standard Bipolar Lateral PNP Transistor 330 Construction of Small-Signal Lateral PNP Transistors 332 8.2.4. High-Voltage Bipolar Transistors 337 8.2.5. Super-Beta NPN Transistors 340 8.3 CMOS and BiCMOS Small-Signal Bipolar Transistors 341 8.3.1. CMOS PNP Transistors 341 8.3.2. Shallow-Well Transistors 345 8.3.3. Analog BiCMOS Bipolar Transistors 347 8.3.4. Fast Bipolar Transistors 349 8.3.5. Polysilicon-Emitter Transistors 351 8.3.6. Oxide-Isolated Transistors 354 8.3.7. Silicon-Germanium Transistors 356 8.4 Summary 358 8.5 Exercises 358 9 Applications of Bipolar Transistors 360 9.1 Power Bipolar Transistors 361 9.1.1. Failure Mechanisms of NPN Power Transistors 362 Emitter Debiasing 362 Thermal Runaway and Secondary Breakdown 364 Kirk Effect 366 9.1.2. Layout of Power NPN Transistors 368 The Interdigitated-Emitter Transistor 369 The Wide-Emitter Narrow-Contact Transistor 371 The Christmas-Tree Device 372 The Cruciform-Emitter Transistor 373 Power Transistor Layout in Analog BiCMOS 374 Selecting a Power Transistor Layout 376 9.1.3. Power PNP Transistors 376 9.1.4. Saturation Detection and Limiting 378 9.2 Matching Bipolar Transistors 381 9.2.1. Random Variations 382 9.2.2. Emitter Degeneration 384 9.2.3. NBL Shadow 386 9.2.4. Thermal Gradients 387 9.2.5. Stress Gradients 391 9.2.6. Filler-Induced Stress 393 9.2.7. Other Causes of Systomatic Mismatch 395 9.3 Rules for Bipolar Transistor Matching 396 9.3.1. Rules for Matching Vertical Transistors 397 9.3.2. Rules for Matching Lateral Transistors 402 9.4 Summary 402 9.5 Exercises 403 10 Diodes 406 10.1 Diodes in Standard Bipolar 406 10.1.1. Diode-Connected Transistors 406 10.1.2. Zener Diodes 409 Surface Zener Diodes 410 Buried Zeners 412 10.1.3. Schottky Diodes 415 10.1.4. Power Diodes 420 10.2 Diodes in CMOS and BiCMOS Processes 422 10.2.1. CMOS Junction Diodes 422 10.2.2. CMOS and BiCMOS Schottky Diodes 423 10.3 Matching Diodes 425 10.3.1. Matching PN Junction Diodes 425 10.3.2. Matching Zener Diodes 426 10.3.3. Matching Schottky Diodes 428 10.4 Summary 428 10.5 Exercises 429 11 Field-Effect Transistors 430 11.1 Topics in MOS Transistor Operation 431 11.1.1. Modeling the MOS Transistor 431 Device Transconductance 432 Threshold Voltage 434 11.1.2. Parasitics of MOS Transistors 438 Breakdown Mechanisms 440 CMOS Latchup 442 Leakage Mechanisms 443 11.2 Constructing CMOS Transistors 446 11.2.1. Coding the MOS Transistor 447 Width and Length 448 11.2.2. N-Well and P-Well Processes 449 11.2.3. Channel Stop Implants 452 11.2.4. Threshold Adjust Implants 453 11.2.5. Scaling the Transistor 456 11.2.6. Variant Structures 459 Serpentine Transistors 461 Annular Transistors 462 11.2.7. Backgate Contacts 464 11.3 Floating-Gate Transistors 467 11.3.1. Principles of Floating-Gate Transistor Operation 469 11.3.2. Single-Poly EEPROM Memory 472 11.4 The JFET Transistor 474 11.4.1. Modeling the JFET 474 11.4.2. JFET Layout 476 11.5 Summary 479 11.6 Exercises 479 12 Applications of MOS Transistors 482 12.1 Extended-Voltage Transistors 482 12.1.1. LDD and DDD Transistors 483 12.1.2. Extended-Drain Transistors 486 Extended-Drain NMOS Transistors 487 Extended-Drain PMOS Transistors 488 12.1.3. Multiple Gate Oxides 489 12.2 Power MOS Transistors 491 12.2.1. MOS Safe Operating Area 492 Electrical SOA 493 Electrothermal SOA 496 Rapid Transient Overload 497 12.2.2. Conventional MOS Power Transistors 498 The Rectangular Device 499 The Diagonal Device 500 Computation of 501 RM Other Considerations 502 Nonconventional Structures 503 12.2.3. DMOS Transistors 505 The Lateral DMOS Transistor 506 RESURF Transistors 508 The DMOS NPN 510 12.3 MOS Transistor Matching 511 12.3.1. Geometric Effects 513 Gate Area 513 Gate Oxide Thickness 514 Channel Length Modulation 515 Orientation 515 12.3.2. Diffusion and Etch Effects 516 Polysilicon Etch Rate Variations 516 Diffusion Penetration of Polysilicon 517 Contacts Over Active Gate 518 Diffusions Near the Channel 518 PMOS versus NMOS Transistors 519 12.3.3. Hydrogenation 520 Fill Metal and MOS Matching 521 12.3.4. Thermal and Stress Effects 521 Oxide Thickness Gradients 522 Stress Gradients 522 Thermal Gradients 522 12.3.5. Common-Centroid Layout of MOS Transistors 523 12.4 Rules for MOS Transistor Matching 528 12.5 Summary 531 12.6 Exercises 531 13 Special Topics 534 13.1 Merged Devices 534 13.1.1. Flawed Device Mergers 535 13.1.2. Successful Device Mergers 539 13.1.3. Low-Risk Merged Devices 541 13.1.4. Medium-Risk Merged Devices 542 13.1.5. Devising New Merged Devices 544 13.1.6. The Role of Merged Devices in Analog BiCMOS 544 13.2 Guard Rings 545 13.2.1. Standard Bipolar Electron Guard Rings 546 13.2.2. Standard Bipolar Hole Guard Rings 547 13.2.3. Guard Rings in CMOS and BiCMOS Designs 548 13.3 Single-level Interconnection 551 13.3.1. Mock Layouts and Stick Diagrams 551 13.3.2. Techniques for Crossing Leads 553 13.3.3. Types of Tunnels 555 13.4 Constructing the Padring 557 13.4.1. Scribe Streets and Alignment Markers 557 13.4.2. Bondpads,Trimpads, and Testpads 558 13.5 ESD Structures 562 13.5.1. Zener Clamp 563 13.5.2. Two-Stage Zener Clamps 565 13.5.3. Buffered Zener Clamp 566 13.5.4. Clamp 568 13.5.5. Clamp 569 13.5.6. Antiparallel Diode Clamps 570 13.5.7. Grounded-Gate NMOS Clamps 570 13.5.8. CDM Clamps 572 13.5.9. Lateral SCR Clamps 573 13.5.10. Selecting ESD Structures 575 13.6 Exercises 578 14 Assembling the Die 581 14.1 Die Planning 581 14.1.1. Cell Area Estimation 582 Resistors 582 Capacitors 582 Vertical Bipolar Transistors 583 Lateral PNP Transistors 583 MOS Transistors 583 MOS Power Transistors 584 Computing Cell Area 584 14.1.2. Die Area Estimation 584 14.1.3. Gross Profit Margin 587 14.2 Floorplanning 588 14.3 Top-Level Interconnection 594 14.3.1. Principles of Channel Routing 594 14.3.2. Special Routing Techniques 596 Kelvin Connections 597 Noisy Signals and Sensitive Signals 598 14.3.3. Electromigration 600 14.3.4. Minimizing Stress Effects 603 14.4 Conclusion 604 14.5 Exercises 605 Appendices A. Table of Acronyms Used in the Text 607 B. The Miller Indices of a Cubic Crystal 611 C. Sample Layout Rules 614 D. Mathematical Derivations 622 E. Sources for Layout Editor Software 627 Index 628

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