Electrochemistry of zirconia gas sensors
Electrochemistry of zirconia gas sensors
CRC Press, c2008
The first book to present a detailed analysis of the electrochemistry, development, modeling, optimization, testing, and technology behind modern zirconia-based sensors, Electrochemistry of Zirconia Gas Sensors explores how to tailor these sensors to meet specific industrial needs. The book addresses a range of different stages of development in zirconia-based sensors for gaseous and molten metal environments, focusing on an accessible form from analysis of interaction at the measuring environment-zirconia sensor interface to reliability testing of the sensors. The coverage highlights different fundamental aspects of electrochemistry and physical chemistry of zirconia, mathematical modeling, optimization parameters, and structures of the electrode materials. The author highlights the factors that determine high sensitivity, critically reviews the limitations of current technologies, and surveys the needs and possibilities of future developments. He covers technologies for vacuum-tight joining zirconia to ceramic insulators and sensor construction materials as well as sensor design and concepts of the total-NOx sensor based on mixed potential. The book includes a critical overview of existing technologies of zirconia gas sensors including nanotechnology. This book fills the gap between pure academic research of the zirconia-based gas sensors, explaining the influence of the double electrical layer on the sensor output signal and the applied, technological, down-to-earth approaches adopted by the vast majority of the industrial companies working in this field. Providing guidance on how to organize a testing program of gas sensors, the book allows readers to look forward in evaluating future trends in the zirconia gas sensors development.
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF SOLID ELECTROLYTE GAS SENSORS Electrochemistry of Zirconia Solid Electrolytes as the Basis for Understanding Electrochemical Gas Sensors ElectroPhysical Properties of Solid Electrolytes Aging of Solid Electrolytes An Electron Model of Solid Oxygen-Ionic Electrolytes Used in Gas Sensors Electrode Processes in Solid Electrolyte Sensors References MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ZIRCONIA GAS SENSORS WITH DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS Complete Mathematical Model of Electrochemical Gas Sensors Modeling Interactions of Oxygen with Nernstian Zirconia Sensor Modeling Interactions of Various Gases with Non-Nernstian Zirconia Sensors Numerical Mathematical Models of Zirconia Gas Sensors Identification Parameters of Mathematical Models Verification Adequacy of Mathematical Models to Real Gas Sensors Nomenclature References METROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-NERNSTIAN ZIRCONIA GAS SENSORS Non-Nernstian Zirconia Gas Sensors Mixed-potential NOx Sensors Mixed-potential Hydrocarbon Sensors Impedance-based Zirconia Gas Sensors Future Trends References ZIRCONIA SENSORS FOR MEASUREMENT GAS CONCENTRATION IN MOLTEN METALS Zirconia Sensors for the Measurement of Oxygen Activity in Melts Impedance Method for the Analysis of in-situ Diagnostics and the Control of an Electrolyte/Liquid-metal Electrode Interface Measuring Oxygen Concentration in Lead-Bismuth Heat Carriers Regulation of Oxygen Partial Pressure in Melts by Zirconia Pumps References MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES OF ZIRCONIA GAS SENSORS Vacuum-Tight Technologies of Joining Zirconia to Ceramic Insulators Vacuum-Tight Technologies of Joining Zirconia to Sensor Construction Materials Nanotechnologies for Zirconia Gas Sensors Limitations of Existing Technologies and Future Trends References ERRORS OF MEASUREMENT OF ZIRCONIA GAS SENSORS Bases of Errors Theory in Relation to Electrochemical Gas Sensors Analysis Systematic Errors of Zirconia Gas Sensors Analysis of the Main Components of Errors of Zirconia Gas Sensors Calculation of Errors on the Basis of Experimental Data References ORGANIZATION AND PLANNING OF TESTING ZIRCONIA SENSORS Main Principles of Zirconia Sensors Testing Planning of Experiments Reliability Testing of Zirconia Gas Sensors References Index
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