Physics of continuous matter : exotic and everyday phenomena in the macroscopic world

書誌事項

Physics of continuous matter : exotic and everyday phenomena in the macroscopic world

B Lautrup

CRC, c2011

2nd ed

  • : hard

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注記

Includes bibliographical references(p. [665]-672) and index

内容説明・目次

内容説明

Physics of Continuous Matter: Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World, Second Edition provides an introduction to the basic ideas of continuum physics and their application to a wealth of macroscopic phenomena. The text focuses on the many approximate methods that offer insight into the rich physics hidden in fundamental continuum mechanics equations. Like its acclaimed predecessor, this second edition introduces mathematical tools on a "need-to-know" basis. New to the Second Edition This edition includes three new chapters on elasticity of slender rods, energy, and entropy. It also offers more margin drawings and photographs and improved images of simulations. Along with reorganizing much of the material, the author has revised many of the physics arguments and mathematical presentations to improve clarity and consistency. The collection of problems at the end of each chapter has been expanded as well. These problems further develop the physical and mathematical concepts presented. With worked examples throughout, this book clearly illustrates both qualitative and quantitative physics reasoning. It emphasizes the importance in understanding the physical principles behind equations and the conditions underlying approximations. A companion website provides a host of ancillary materials, including software programs, color figures, and additional problems.

目次

Contents Preface xi 1 Continuous matter 1 1.1 Molecules ... 2 1.2 The continuum approximation ... 6 1.3 Newtonian mechanics ... 9 1.4 Reference frames ... 11 1.5 Cartesian coordinate systems ... 14 1.6 Fields ... 15 I Fluids at rest 19 2 Pressure 21 2.1 What is pressure? ... 21 2.2 The pressure field ... 24 2.3 Hydrostatics ... 27 2.4 Equation of state ... 29 2.5 Bulk modulus ... 33 2.6 Application: Earth's homentropic atmosphere ... 34 2.7 Application: The Sun's convective envelope ... 38 3 Buoyancy and stability 41 3.1 Archimedes' principle ... 41 3.2 The gentle art of ballooning ... 44 3.3 Stability of floating bodies ... 46 3.4 Ship stability ... 48 4 Hydrostatic shapes 57 4.1 Fluid interfaces in hydrostatic equilibrium ... 57 4.2 The centrifugal force ... 58 4.3 The figure of Earth ... 60 4.4 The Earth, the Moon, and the tides ... 62 4.5 Application: The tides of Io ... 66 5 Surface tension 69 5.1 Basic physics of surface tension ... 69 5.2 Soap bubbles ... 73 5.3 Pressure discontinuity ... 76 5.4 The Rayleigh-Plateau instability ... 78 5.5 Contact angle ... 81 vi PHYSICS OF CONTINUOUS MATTER 5.6 Meniscus at a flat wall ... 84 5.7 Meniscus in a cylindrical tube ... 86 5.8 Application: Sessile drops and captive bubbles ... 88 5.9 Application: Pendant drops and tethered bubbles ... 90 II Solids at rest 95 6 Stress 97 6.1 Friction ... 97 6.2 Stress fields ... 99 6.3 The nine components of stress ... 101 6.4 Mechanical equilibrium ... 104 6.5 Asymmetric stress tensors ... 106 7 Strain 109 7.1 Displacement ... 109 7.2 The displacement field ... 112 7.3 Geometrical meaning of the strain tensor ... 116 7.4 Work and energy ... 119 7.5 Large deformations ... 120 8 Hooke's law 125 8.1 Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio ... 125 8.2 Hooke's law in isotropic matter ... 128 8.3 Static uniform deformation ... 132 8.4 Elastic energy ... 134 9 Basic elastostatics 139 9.1 Equations of elastostatics ... 139 9.2 Standing up to gravity ... 142 9.3 Bending a beam ... 146 9.4 Twisting a shaft ... 150 9.5 Application: Radial deformation of a spherical body ... 153 9.6 Application: Radial deformation of a cylindrical body ... 156 10 Slender rods 163 10.1 Small deflections without torsion ... 163 10.2 Buckling instability ... 166 10.3 Large deflections without torsion ... 169 10.4 Mixed bending and twisting ... 171 10.5 Application: The helical spring ... 173 11 Computational elastostatics 177 11.1 Theory of the numeric method ... 177 11.2 Discretization of space ... 180 11.3 Application: Gravitational settling in two dimensions ... 182 III Fluids in motion 187 12 Continuum dynamics 189 12.1 The velocity field ... 189 12.2 Incompressible flow ... 192 CONTENTS vii 12.3 Mass conservation ... 194 12.4 Equations of continuum dynamics ... 198 12.5 Application: Big Bang ... 200 12.6 Application: Newtonian cosmology ... 201 13 Nearly ideal flow 207 13.1 Euler equation for incompressible ideal flow ... 207 13.2 Application: Collapse of a spherical cavity ... 209 13.3 Steady incompressible ideal flow ... 211 13.4 Vorticity ... 216 13.5 Circulation ... 219 13.6 Potential flow ... 220 13.7 Application: Cylinder in uniform crosswind ... 222 13.8 Application: Sphere in a uniform stream ... 225 13.9 d'Alembert's paradox ... 226 14 Compressible flow 229 14.1 Small-amplitude sound waves ... 229 14.2 Steady compressible flow ... 233 14.3 Application: The Laval nozzle ... 237 15 Viscosity 243 15.1 Shear viscosity ... 243 15.2 Velocity-driven planar flow ... 246 15.3 Dynamics of incompressible Newtonian fluids ... 250 15.4 Classification of flows ... 253 15.5 Dynamics of compressible Newtonian fluids ... 255 15.6 Application: Viscous attenuation of sound ... 257 16 Channels and pipes 261 16.1 Steady, incompressible, viscous flow ... 261 16.2 Pressure-driven channel flow ... 262 16.3 Gravity-driven planar flow ... 265 16.4 Laminar pipe flow ... 268 16.5 Phenomenology of turbulent pipe flow ... 274 16.6 Laminar cylindric flow ... 277 16.7 Secondary flow and Taylor vortices ... 281 17 Creeping flow 287 17.1 Stokes flow ... 287 17.2 Creeping flow around a solid ball ... 289 17.3 Beyond Stokes' law ... 294 17.4 Lubrication ... 298 17.5 Application: Loaded journal bearing ... 304 18 Rotating fluids 309 18.1 Fictitious forces ... 309 18.2 Steady flow in a rotating system ... 312 18.3 The Ekman layer ... 315 18.4 Application: Steady bathtub vortex ... 318 18.5 Debunking an urban legend ... 320 19 Computational fluid dynamics 323 19.1 Unsteady, incompressible flow ... 323 viii PHYSICS OF CONTINUOUS MATTER 19.2 Temporal discretization ... 325 19.3 Spatial discretization ... 326 19.4 Application: Laminar channel entry flow ... 330 IV Balance and conservation 337 20 Mechanical balances 339 20.1 Quantities and sources ... 339 20.2 Mass balance ... 342 20.3 Momentum balance ... 343 20.4 Angular momentum balance ... 346 20.5 Kinetic energy balance ... 348 20.6 Mechanical energy balance ... 351 21 Action and reaction 355 21.1 Reaction force ... 355 21.2 Reaction moment ... 359 21.3 Application: The Francis turbine ... 366 22 Energy 371 22.1 First Law of Thermodynamics ... 371 22.2 Incompressible fluid at rest ... 375 22.3 Incompressible fluid in motion ... 380 22.4 General homogeneous isotropic fluids ... 384 23 Entropy 393 23.1 Entropy in classical thermodynamics ... 393 23.2 Entropy balance ... 395 23.3 Fluctuations ... 398 V Selected topics 401 24 Elastic vibrations 403 24.1 Elastodynamics ... 403 24.2 Harmonic vibrations ... 406 24.3 Refraction and reflection ... 409 24.4 Surface waves ... 414 25 Gravity waves 419 25.1 Basic wave concepts ... 419 25.2 Harmonic surface waves ... 422 25.3 Open surface gravity waves ... 424 25.4 Capillary waves ... 429 25.5 Internal waves ... 431 25.6 Global wave properties ... 434 25.7 Statistics of wind-generated ocean waves ... 439 26 Jumps and shocks 443 26.1 Hydraulic jumps ... 443 26.2 Circular jump ... 448 26.3 Stationary shocks in uniformly moving fluids ... 450 26.4 Application: Atmospheric blast wave ... 454 CONTENTS ix 27 Whirls and vortices 461 27.1 Free cylindrical vortices ... 461 27.2 Basic vortex theory ... 464 27.3 Line vortices ... 466 27.4 Advective vortex spin-up ... 471 27.5 Steady vortex sustained by secondary flow ... 472 27.6 Application: The bathtub vortex ... 475 28 Boundary layers 481 28.1 Basic physics of boundary layers ... 481 28.2 Boundary layer theory ... 485 28.3 The Blasius layer ... 487 28.4 Turbulence in the Blasius layer ... 492 28.5 Planar stagnation flow ... 496 28.6 Self-similar boundary layers ... 498 28.7 Laminar boundary layer separation ... 501 28.8 Wall-anchored model ... 502 28.9 Wall derivative plus momentum balance ... 505 28.10 Momentum plus energy balance ... 506 28.11 Integral approximation to separation ... 508 29 Subsonic flight 513 29.1 Aircraft controls ... 513 29.2 Aerodynamic forces and moments ... 516 29.3 Steady flight ... 517 29.4 Estimating lift ... 520 29.5 Estimating drag ... 527 29.6 Lift, drag, and the trailing wake ... 532 29.7 Two-dimensional airfoil theory ... 537 29.8 The distant laminar wake ... 541 30 Convection 547 30.1 Heat-driven convection ... 547 30.2 Convective instability ... 552 30.3 Linear stability analysis of convection ... 555 30.4 Application: Rayleigh-B'enard convection ... 557 31 Turbulence 565 31.1 Scaling in fully developed turbulence ... 565 31.2 Mean flow and fluctuations ... 571 31.3 Universal inner layer near a smooth wall ... 574 31.4 The outer layer ... 579 31.5 Application: Turbulent channel flow ... 581 31.6 Application: Turbulent pipe flow ... 582 31.7 Turbulence modeling ... 584 VI Appendices 587 A Newtonian mechanics 589 A.1 Dynamic equations ... 589 A.2 Force and momentum ... 590 A.3 Moment of force and angular momentum ... 591 x PHYSICS OF CONTINUOUS MATTER A.4 Power and kinetic energy ... 592 A.5 Internal and external forces ... 593 A.6 Hierarchies of particle interactions ... 594 B Cartesian coordinates 595 B.1 Cartesian vectors ... 595 B.2 Vector algebra ... 596 B.3 Basis vectors ... 598 B.4 Index notation ... 599 B.5 Cartesian coordinate transformations ... 601 B.6 Scalars, vectors, and tensors ... 604 C Field calculus 611 C.1 Spatial derivatives ... 611 C.2 Spatial integrals ... 613 C.3 Fundamental integral theorems ... 614 C.4 Proofs of the fundamental integral theorems ... 615 C.5 Field transformations ... 616 D Curvilinear coordinates 619 D.1 Cylindrical coordinates ... 619 D.2 Spherical coordinates ... 623 E Ideal gases 627 E.1 Internal energy ... 627 E.2 Entropy ... 629 Answers to problems 631 References 665 Index 673

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詳細情報

  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    BB05640656
  • ISBN
    • 9781420077001
  • 出版国コード
    us
  • タイトル言語コード
    eng
  • 本文言語コード
    eng
  • 出版地
    Boca Raton
  • ページ数/冊数
    xii, 684 p.
  • 大きさ
    29 cm
  • 分類
  • 件名
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