The nature and properties of soils

書誌事項

The nature and properties of soils

Ray R. Weil, Nyle C. Brady

Pearson, c2017

15th ed

  • : hbk

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 8

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注記

Includes bibliographical references and index

内容説明・目次

内容説明

Developed for Introduction to Soils or Soil Science courses, The Nature and Properties of Soils, Fifteenth Edition, can be used in courses such as Soil Fertility, Land Resources, Earth Science and Soil Geography. "The Nature and Properties of Soils has been my labor of love for the past 5 years and updates a narrative that has both reflected and helped to shape soil science thinking for more than a century. It has evolved to provide a globally relevant framework for an integrated understanding of the diversity of soils, the soil system and its role in the ecology of planet Earth." - Ray R. WeilThis hallmark text introduces the exciting world of soils through clear writing, strong pedagogy, and an ecological approach that effectively explains the fundamentals of soil science. Worked calculations, vignettes, and current real-world applications prepare readers to understand concepts, solve problems, and think critically. Written for both majors and non-majors, this text highlights the many interactions between the soil and other components of forest, range, agricultural, wetland and constructed ecosystems. Now in full-color, the Fifteenth Edition includes hundreds of compelling photos, figures, and diagrams to bring the exciting world of soils to life. Extensively revised, new and updated content appears in every chapter. Examples include: coverage of the pedosphere concept; new insights into humus and soil carbon accumulation; subaqueous soils, soil effects on human health; principles and practice of organic farming; urban and human engineered soils; new understandings of the nitrogen cycle; water-saving irrigation techniques; hydraulic redistribution, soil food-web ecology; disease suppressive soils; soil microbial genomics; soil interactions with global climate change; digital soil maps; and many others.

目次

Contents Preface xv 1The soils around us 1 1.1 What Ecosystem Services Do Soils Perform? 2 1.2 How Do Soils Support Plant Growth? 3 1.3 How Do Soils Regulate Water Supplies? 7 1.4 How Do Soils Recycle Raw Materials? 8 1.5 How Do Soils Modify the Atmosphere? 8 1.6 What Lives in the Soil Habitat? 8 1.7 Soil as an Engineering Medium 11 1.8 The Pedosphere and the Critical Zone? 12 1.9 Soils as Natural Bodies 12 2.5 How Do Living Organisms (Including People) Affect Soil Formation? 57 2.6 How Does Topography Affect Soil Formation? 62 2.7 How Does Time Affect Soil Formation 65 2.8 Four Basic Processes of Soil Formation 67 2.9 The Soil Profile 70 2.10 Urban Soils 77 2.11 Conclusion 81 Study Questions 81 References 82 1.10 The Soil Profile and Its Layers (Horizons) 15 3 1.11 Topsoil and Subsoil 18 1.12 Soil-Interface of Air, Minerals, Water, and Life 20 1.13 What are the Mineral (Inorganic) Constituents of Soils? 20 1.14 The Nature of Soil Organic Matter 23 1.15 Soil Water-Dynamic and Complex 25 1.16 Soil Air: A Changing Mixture of Gases 26 1.17 How Do Soil Components Interact to Supply Nutrients to Plants? 26 1.18 How Do Plant Roots Obtain Nutrients? 28 1.19 Soil Health, Degradation, and Resilience 30 1.20 Conclusions 31 Study Questions 32 References 32 2 Information of soils from Parent Materials 33 2.1 Weathering of Rocks and Minerals 33 2.2 What Environmental Factors Influence Soil Formation? 41 2.3 Parent Materials 42 2.4 How Does Climate Affect Soil Formation? 55 3 Soil Classification 83 3.1 Concept of Individual Soils 83 3.2 Soil Taxonomy: A Comprehensive Classification System 85 3.3 Categories and Nomenclature of Soil Taxonomy 92 3.4 Soil Orders 94 3.5 Entisols (Recent: Little If Any Profile Development) 96 3.6 Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features: Inception of B Horizon) 99 3.7 Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils) 100 3.8 Gelisols (Permafrost and Frost Churning) 102 3.9 Histosols (Organic Soils Without Permafrost) 103 3.10 Aridisols (Dry Soils) 107 3.11 Vertisols (Dark, Swelling, and Cracking Clays) 109 3.12 Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands) 112 3.13 Alfisols (Argillic or Natric Horizon, Moderately Leached) 114 3.14 Ultisols (Argillic Horizon, Highly Leached) 115 3.15 Spodosols (Acid, Sandy, Forest Soils, Highly Leached) 117 3.16 Oxisols (Oxic Horizon, Highly Weathered) 118 3.17 Lower-Level Categories in Soil Taxonomy 121 3.18 Conclusion 128 Study Questions 129 References 129 4 Soil architecture and Physical Properties 130 4.1 Soil Color 130 4.2 Soil Texture (Size Distribution of Soil Particles) 134 4.3 Soil Textural Classes 139 4.4 Structure of Mineral Soils 144 4.5 Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates 148 4.6 Tillage and Structural Management of Soils 156 4.7 Soil Density 161 4.8 Pore Space of Mineral Soils 171 4.9 Soil Properties Relevant to Engineering Uses 175 4.10 Conclusion 185 Study Questions 185 References 186 5 Soil Water: Characteristics and Behavior 188 5.1 Structure and Related Properties of Water 189 5.2 Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water 191 5.3 Soil Water Energy Concepts 193 5.4 Soil Water Content and Soil Water Potential 199 5.5 The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil 207 5.6 Infiltration and Percolation 213 5.7 Water Vapor Movement in Soils 217 5.8 Qualitative Description of Soil Wetness 218 5.9 Factors Affecting Amount of Plant-Available Soil Water 222 5.10 Mechanisms by Which Plants are Supplied with Water 228 5.11 Conclusion 230 Study Questions 230 References 232 6 Soil and the hydrologic Cycle 233 6.1 The Global Hydrologic Cycle 234 6.2 Fate of Incoming Water 236 6.3 The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) 244 6.4 Control of ET 250 6.5 Liquid Losses of Water from the Soil 255 6.6 Percolation and Groundwater 257 6.7 Enhancing Soil Drainage 262 6.8 Septic Tank Drain Fields 269 6.9 Irrigation Principles and Practices 273 6.10 Conclusion 280 Study Questions 282 References 282 7 Soil aeration and Temperature 284 7.1 Soil Aeration-The Process 284 7.2 Means of Characterizing Soil Aeration 286 7.3 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potential 288 7.4 Factors Affecting Soil Aeration and Eh 292 7.5 Ecological Effects of Soil Aeration 294 7.6 Soil Aeration in Urban Landscapes 298 7.7 Wetlands and Their Poorly Aerated Soils 301 7.8 Processes Affected by Soil Temperature 308 7.9 Absorption and Loss of Solar Energy 314 7.10 Thermal Properties of Soils 316 7.11 Soil Temperature Control 321 7.12 Conclusion 324 Study Questions 325 References 325 8 The Colloidal fraction: seat of soil Chemical and Physical activity 327 8.1 General Properties and Types of Soil Colloids 328 8.2 Fundamentals of Layer Silicate Clay Structure 332 8.3 Mineralogical Organization of Silicate Clays 334 8.4 Structural Characteristics of Nonsilicate Colloids 342 8.5 Genesis and Geographic Distribution of Soil Colloids 344 8.6 Sources of Charges on Soil Colloids 346 8.7 Adsorption of Cations and Anions 348 8.8 Cation Exchange Reactions 350 8.9 Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) 356 8.10 Exchangeable Cations in Field Soils 362 8.11 Anion Exchange 364 8.12 Sorption of Pesticides and Groundwater Contamination 366 8.13 Binding of Biomolecules to Clay and Humus 369 9 Soil acidity 374 9.1 What Processes Cause Soil Acidification? 375 9.2 Role of Aluminum in Soil Acidity 379 9.3 Pools of Soil Acidity 380 9.4 Buffering of pH in Soils 385 9.5 How Can We Measure Soil PH? 386 9.6 Human-Influenced Soil Acidification 390 9.7 Biological Effects of Soil pH 397 9.8 Raising Soil pH by Liming 404 9.9 Alternative Ways to Ameliorate the Ill Effects of Soil Acidity 410 9.10 Lowering Soil pH 414 9.11 Conclusion 415 Study Questions 417 References 417 10 Soils of dry regions: alkalinity, salinity, and sodicity 420 10.1 Characteristics and Problems of Dry Region Soils 421 10.2 Causes of High Soil pH (Alkalinity) 429 10.3 Development of Salt-Affected Soils 431 10.4 Measuring Salinity and Sodicity 435 10.5 Classes of Salt-Affected Soils 438 10.6 Physical Degradation of Soil by Sodic Chemical Conditions 441 10.7 Biological Impacts of Salt-Affected Soils 444 10.8 Water-Quality Considerations for Irrigation 449 10.9 Reclamation of Saline Soils 452 10.10 Reclamation of Saline-Sodic and Sodic Soils 456 10.11 Management of Reclaimed Soils 461 10.12 Conclusion 461 Study Questions 462 References 463 11 Organisms and ecology of the soil 464 11.1 The Diversity of Organisms in the Soil 465 11.2 Organisms in Action 470 11.3 Abundance, Biomass, and Metabolic Activity 475 11.4 Earthworms 477 11.5 Ants and Termites 482 11.6 Soil Microanimals 486 11.7 Plant Roots 490 11.8 Soil Algae 494 11.9 Soil Fungi 494 11.10 Soil Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea 502 11.11 Conditions Affecting the Growth and Activity of Soil Microorganisms 509 11.12 Beneficial Effects of Soil Organisms on Plant Communities 510 11.13 Soil Organisms and Plant Damage 512 11.14 Ecological Relationships among Soil Organisms 517 11.15 Conclusion 521 Study Questions 522 References 523 12 Soil organic Matter 526 12.1 The Global Carbon Cycle 526 12.2 Organic Decomposition in Soils 530 12.3 Factors Controlling Rates of Residue Decomposition and Mineralization 535 12.4 Genesis and Nature of Soil Organic Matter and Humus 543 12.5 Influences of Organic Matter on Plant Growth and Soil Function 550 12.6 Amounts and Quality of Organic Matter in Soils 555 12.7 Carbon Balance in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System 556 12.8 Environmental Factors Influencing Soil Organic Carbon Levels 560 12.9 Soil Organic Matter Management 564 12.10 Soils and Climate Change 568 12.11 Composts and Composting 575 12.12 Conclusion 579 Study Questions 580 References 581 13 Nitrogen and sulfur economy of soils 583 13.1 Influence of Nitrogen on Plant Growth and Development 584 13.2 Distribution of Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle 585 13.3 Immobilization and Mineralization 587 13.4 Dissolved Organic Nitrogen 590 13.5 Ammonium Fixation by Clay Minerals 591 13.6 Ammonia Volatilization 591 13.7 Nitrification 593 13.8 Gaseous Losses by Denitrification and Anammox 596 13.9 Biological Nitrogen Fixation 601 13.10 Symbiotic Fixation with Legumes 603 13.11 Symbiotic Fixation with Nonlegumes 608 13.12 Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation 610 13.13 Nitrogen Deposition from the Atmosphere 611 13.14 The Nitrate Leaching Problem 613 13.15 Practical Management of Soil Nitrogen 617 13.16 Importance of Sulfur 625 13.17 Natural Sources of Sulfur 626 13.18 The Sulfur Cycle 631 13.19 Behavior of Sulfur Compounds in Soils 631 13.20 Sulfur Oxidation and Reduction 634 13.21 Sulfur Retention and Exchange 637 13.22 Sulfur and Soil Fertility Maintenance 638 13.23 Conclusion 639 Study Questions 639 References 640 14 Soil Phosphorus and Potassium 643 14.1 Phosphorus in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility 644 14.2 Effects of Phosphorus on Environmental Quality 646 14.3 The Phosphorus Cycle 652 14.4 Organic Phosphorus in Soils 657 14.5 Inorganic Phosphorus in Soils 661 14.6 Solubility of Inorganic Soil Phosphorus 664 14.7 Phosphorus-Fixation Capacity of Soils 667 14.8 Plant Strategies for Adequate Phosphorus Acquisition from Soils 672 14.9 Practical Phosphorus Management 674 14.10 Potassium: Nature and Ecological Roles 677 14.11 Potassium in Plant and Animal Nutrition 678 14.12 The Potassium Cycle 681 14.13 The Potassium Problem in Soil Fertility 683 14.14 Forms and Availability of Potassium in Soils 685 14.15 Factors Affecting Potassium Fixation in Soils 688 14.16 Practical Aspects of Potassium Management 689 14.17 Conclusion 691 Study Questions 692 References 693 15 Calcium, Magnesium, silicon, and Trace elements 696 15.1 Calcium as an Essential Nutrient 697 15.2 Magnesium as a Plant Nutrient 699 15.3 Silicon in Soil-Plant Ecology 703 15.4 Deficiency Versus Toxicity 708 15.5 Micronutrient Roles in Plants 710 15.6 Sources of Micronutrients 715 15.7 Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Cations 719 15.8 Organic Compounds as Chelates 724 15.9 Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Anions 728 15.10 Soil Management and Trace Element Needs 734 15.11 Conclusion 741 Study Questions 742 References 743 16 Practical Nutrient Management 745 16.1 Goals of Nutrient Management 745 16.2 Nutrients as Pollutants 749 16.3 Natural Ecosystem Nutrient Cycles 762 16.4 Recycling Nutrients Through Animal Manures 766 16.5 Industrial and Municipal By-Products 775 16.6 Practical Utilization of Organic Nutrient Sources 778 16.7 Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers 782 16.8 Fertilizer Application Methods 788 16.9 Timing of Fertilizer Application 792 16.10 Diagnostic Tools and Methods 793 16.11 Soil Analysis 798 16.12 Site-Index Approach to Phosphorus Management 804 16.13 Some Advances and Challenges in Fertilizer Management 807 16.14 Conclusion 812 Study Questions 814 References 815 17 Soil erosion and its Control 818 17.1 Significance of Soil Erosion and Land Degradation 819 17.2 On-Site and Off-Site impacts of Accelerated Soil Erosion 825 17.3 Mechanics of Water Erosion 828 17.4 Models to Predict the Extent of Water-Induced Erosion 831 17.5 Factors Affecting Interrill and Rill Erosion 834 17.6 Conservation Tillage 842 17.7 Vegetative Barriers 849 17.8 Control of Gully Erosion and Mass Wasting 850 17.9 Control of Accelerated Erosion on Range- and Forestland 853 17.10 Erosion and Sediment Control on Construction Sites 856 17.11 Wind Erosion: Importance and Factors Affecting It 860 17.12 Predicting and Controlling Wind Erosion 864 17.13 Tillage Erosion 867 17.14 Land Capability Classification as a Guide to Conservation 871 17.15 Progress in Soil Conservation 873 17.16 Conclusion 875 Study Questions 876 References 877 18 Soils and Chemical Pollution 879 18.1 Toxic Organic Chemicals 880 18.2 Kinds of Organic Contaminants 885 18.3 Behavior of Organic Chemicals in Soil 887 18.4 Effects of Pesticides on Soil Organisms 894 18.5 Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Organic Chemicals 896 18.6 Soil Contamination with Toxic Inorganic Substances 906 18.7 Potential Hazards of Chemicals in Sewage Sludge 912 18.8 Prevention and Remediation of Inorganic Soil Contamination 916 18.9 Landfills 919 18.10 Radionuclides in Soil 925 18.11 Radon Gas from Soils 929 18.12 Conclusion 932 Study Questions 932 References 933 19 Geographic soils information 936 19.1 Soil Spatial Variability in the Field 936 19.2 Techniques and Tools for Mapping Soils 941 19.3 Modern Technology for Soil Investigations 946 19.4 Remote Sensing in Soil Survey 951 19.5 Making a Soil Survey 959 19.6 Using Soil Surveys 962 19.7 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 968 1 9.8 Digital Soil Maps: Properties or Polygons? 971 19.9 GIS, GPS, and Precision Agriculture 976 19.10 Conclusion 979 Study Questions 980 References 980 20 Prospects for soil health in the anthropocene 982 20.1 The Concepts of Soil Health and Soil Quality 983 20.2 Soil Resistance and Resilience 991 20.3 Soils and Global Ecosystem Services 993 20.4 Using Plants to Improve Soil Health 996 20.5 Feeding the Human Population 999 20.6 Intensified Agriculture-the Green Revolution 1000 20.7 Impacts of Vastly Increased Ratios of People to Land 1005 20.8 Sustainable Agriculture in Developed Countries 1010 20.9 Biochar: Hype or Hope for Soil Quality? 1017 20.10 Organic Farming Systems 1019 20.11 Sustainable Agriculture Systems for Resource- Poor Farmers 1026 20.12 Conclusion 1037 Study Questions 1037 References 1038 appendix a World Reference Base, Canadian, and Australian Soil Classification Systems 1041 appendix B SI Units, Conversion Factors, Periodic Table of the Elements, and Plant Names 1046 Glossary of soil science Terms 1052 index 1071

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詳細情報

  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    BB21699762
  • ISBN
    • 9780133254488
  • LCCN
    2016008568
  • 出版国コード
    us
  • タイトル言語コード
    eng
  • 本文言語コード
    eng
  • 出版地
    Boston ; Tokyo
  • ページ数/冊数
    xvii, 1086 p.
  • 大きさ
    29 cm
  • 分類
  • 件名
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