Search Results 61-80 of 387

  • Food Insects of Japan  [in Japanese]

    TAMURA Masato

    広義の食用昆虫には家屋害虫も少なくない.昆虫を適正に食べることは,動物性たんぱく(蛋白)資源の有効利用や害虫防除にもなるので,日本の代表的な食用昆虫,コバネイナゴ・クロスズメバチ・タマムシ・シロスジカミキリおよびアブラゼミ等の生態について述べた.三宅(1919)によると,日本の食用昆虫は8目55種で,最も多かったのはハチ目の14種,次いでチョウ目の11種,バッタ目の9種,甲虫目の8種などが多かった.薬用昆虫は10目123種にのぼり,最も多かったのは甲虫目の32種で,次いでチョウ目の26種,以下,順にカメムシ目の12種,ハチ目の9種,トンボ目の7種,バッタ目とハエ目の各6種,カマキリ目の4種などへと続く.いなご(蝗)は,全国の都府県で等しく食べられる国民的な食用昆虫で,かつては農村における秋の風物誌であった「いなごとり」も,強力な殺虫剤等の出現によって1950年代以降激減したが,1980年頃より水田をとり巻く環境の変化によってコバネイナゴが全国的に再び大発生の傾向にある.その後,飽食の時代を迎えた日本国民の関心は次第に「医食同源」に向いつつあるように思われる.いなごに次いで「蜂の子」が過半数の都道府県で食べられているのは,蜂類は社会性昆虫で,一度に大量入手が可能なためと思われる。昆虫は栄養価が高く,強壮剤として用いられるほか,薬用としては小児の疳(かん)に効くのが最も多い.現在,各地で人が食べている昆虫は,長い間の経験に基づいて伝承されて来たものであるからまずは食べられる昆虫と言えるが,できるだけ新鮮なものを食べ,安全性には充分配慮する必要がある.

    House and household insect pests 25(2), 111-120, 2003-11-29

    NDL Digital Collections  References (7)

  • A Description of the Second species of the Family Dipteromimidae (Insects, Ephemeroptera), and Genetic Relationship of Two Dipteromimid Mayflies Inferred from Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences

    TOJO Koji , MATSUKAWA Kei

    A new mayfly species, Dipteromimus flavipterus sp. nov., of the family Dipteromimidae is described on the basis of specimens of males, females and mature nymphs collected from Ofunato, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This new Dipteromimus species is characterized by a large body size, a yellowish body color (especially the frontal border of the forewings), short penis lobes, a slight elongation backwards of the female 7th abdominal sternum, and a rounded backward projection of the female 9th abdominal sternum, etc., in comparison with another known dipteromimid mayfly Dipteromimus tipuliformis McLachlan, 1875. Full descriptions of males, females, mature nymphs and eggs of this new species have been provided. We also examined and discussed the genetic relationship of two dipteromimid mayflies to settle the taxonomic status, inferred from the partially sequenced large mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) genes. Consequently, phenetic and molecular phylogenetic analyses agreed in terms of clustering.

    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 20(10), 1249-1259, 2003-10-25

    J-STAGE  NDL Digital Collections  References (14) Cited by (4)

  • Allometry of male genitalia in a lepidopteran species, Ostrinia latipennis (Lepidoptera : Crambidae)

    OHNO Suguru , HOSHIZAKI Sugihiko , ISHIKAWA Yukio , TATSUKI Sadahiro , AKIMOTO Shin-ichi

    In species of several insect orders and spiders, it has been shown that the size of male genitalia relative to body size decreases as the body becomes larger (negative allometry), while the relative size of other morphological traits tends to be constant. Such a contrast between genital and somatic traits suggests stabilizing sexual selection on male genitalia: males with small or large genitalia are prone to fail to inseminate females due to incompatibility of their genitalia. In the present study, we tested the contrast between genital and somatic traits for males of a lepidopteran insect, <i>Ostrinia latipennis</i>. We examined allometry of five genital and 11 somatic traits for each of three local populations of <i>O. latipennis</i>. Of the 15 allometric slopes for genital traits, 14 showed significantly negative allometry, whereas none of the 33 slopes for somatic traits represented negative allometry. These results showed that the size of male genitalia in <i>O. latipennis</i> is more stable than the size of somatic traits against changes in body size. This study supports Eberhard et al.'s (1998) hypothesis which states that the low genital allometry in insects and spiders is caused by sexual selection. Based on currently available information on genital morphology and sexual communication in <i>O. latipennis</i>, it seems unlikely that the lock-and-key hypothesis is responsible for the stable genital size in this species.

    Applied Entomology and Zoology 38(3), 313-319, 2003-08-25

    J-STAGE  References (38)

  • Post-embryonic photoreceptor development and dark/light adaptation in the stick insect Carausius morosus (Phasmida, Phasmatidae)

    MEYER-ROCHOW V. Benno , KESKINEN Essi

    The aims of this paper have been (a) to document postembryonic eye growth in the common laboratory stick insect <i>Carausius morosus</i> and (b) to examine whether the capacity of the eye to adapt to changing light intensities varied with age. We found that number of facets, corneal thickness, ommatidial diameter, widths of cone and retinal layers, and rhabdom volume increased linearly. Interommatidial angles, pigment grain sizes, and microvillar diameters, however, remained approximately the same. On the basis of the morphometric data we calculated that sensitivity in the adult stick insect eye was at least tenfold that of the eye of first instar nymphs and could show that adults would be able to perceive a similar amount of detail at considerably dimmer ambient light than the smaller individuals. In terms of resolving power this means that light- and dark-adapted first instar stick insects possess acceptance angles of 5.3° and 8°, respectively and that the corresponding figures for the adult eye are 4.7° and 7.3°. The bigger (and more light-sensitive) eye of fully grown <i>C. morosus</i> makes protection against radiation damage a more serious issue in the adult individual than the small first instar. The findings explain why smaller (=younger) stick insects are less nocturnal than mature, fully-grown individuals. It is, thus, not surprising to see that dark/light adaptational photomechanical changes affecting pigment position and rhabdom widths, are more pronounced in the eyes of the adults.

    Applied Entomology and Zoology 38(3), 281-291, 2003-08-25

    J-STAGE  References (29)

  • The Relation among Emergence Date, Days until First Effective Mating, Fecundity and Adult Longevity in Isoperla aizuana and Sweltsa sp. (Plecoptera)

    YOSHIMURA Mayumi , ISOBE Yu , OISHI Tadashi

    The relation between emergence date and the factors concerned in reproduction were studied in the stoneflies Isoperla aizuana (Perlodidae) and Sweltsa sp. (Chloroperlidae) in the laboratory. Individuals emerging earlier had larger adult size and greater adult longevity. Fecundity was also related to emergence date, adult size, and adult longevity. Furthermore, individuals emerging earlier had more days until first effective mating and tended to mate more effectively than later-emerging individuals. The maturity of the reproductive tissue may differ with emergence date. While most of the later-emerging individuals had a lower rate of effective mating, longer-lived and larger size adults mated more effectively in females of Sweltsa sp. The differences in mating character might affect the effectiveness of mating.

    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 20(4), 471-479, 2003-04-01

    J-STAGE  NDL Digital Collections  References (25) Cited by (2)

  • Ecological Aspects of the Evolutionary Processes

    BOCK Walter J.

    Darwin in his On the Origin of species made it clear that evolutionary change depends on the combined action of two different causes, the first being the origin of genetically based phenotypic variation in the individual organisms comprising the population and the second being the action of selective agents of the external environment placing demands on the individual organisms. For over a century following Darwin, most evolutionists focused on the origin of inherited variation and its transmission; many workers continue to regard genetics to be the core of evolutionary theory. Far less attention has been given to the exact nature of the selective agents with most evolutionists still treating this cause imprecisely to the detriment of our understanding of both nomological and historical evolutionary theory. Darwin was vague in the meaning of his new concept of "Natural Selection," using it interchangeably as one of the causes for evolutionary change and as the final outcome (= evolutionary change). In 1930, natural selection was defined clearly as "non-random, differential reproduction of genes" by R. Fisher and J.B.S. Haldane which is a statement of the outcome of evolutionary process and which omits mention of the causes bringing about this change. Evolutionists quickly accepted this outcome definition of natural selection, and have used interchangeably selection both as a cause and as the result of evolutionary change, causing great confusion. Herein, the details will be discussed of how the external environment (i.e., the environment-phenotype interaction) serves as selective agents and exerts demands on the phenotypic organisms. Included are the concepts of fitness and of the components of fitness (= adaptations) which are respectively (a) survival, (b) direct reproductive and (c) indirect reproductive features. Finally, it will be argued that historical-narrative analyses of organisms, including classification and phylogenetic history, are possible only with a full understanding of nomological evolutionary theory and with functional/adaptive studies of the employed taxonomic features in addition to the standard comparative investigations.

    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 20(3), 279-289, 2003-03-01

    J-STAGE  NDL Digital Collections  References (55)

  • Geographical Analysis of Odonata Habitats in the Shimanto River Basin, Shikoku, Japan  [in Japanese]

    MAETO Kaoru , KOUGO Kiyoe , KOTANI Eiji , MIYATA Hiroaki , SUGIMURA Mitsutoshi

    We conducted a correspondence analysis (CA) of 88 species of Odonata (dragonflies) observed at 455 grid sites (ca. 0.5km×0.5km) in the Shimanto River basin and adjacent areas in Shikoku, Japan. Multiple regression analyses of the two main axes of the CA ordination on the geographical features (altitude, relief) and vegetation of grid sites indicated that the degree of relief and the areal proportion of paddy fields were the main determinants of the species distribution of Odonata. The species were classified into 5 groups by k-means clustering based on the coordinate axes. Groups I and II mostly consisted of lentic species inhabiting ponds, marshes and paddy fields of flat lands. Groups III and IV were composed of lentic species mainly inhabiting marshes and paddy fields and lotic species in slow streams. Group V consisted of lotic species inhabiting mountain streams and spring sources. Habitat requirements for the species appearing in the Red List of Kochi Prefecture are also discussed.

    Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series) 6(1), 27-41, 2003

    J-STAGE  References (25)

  • Changes in the Community Structure of Aquatic Organisms after Midseason Drainage in the Floodwater of Japanese Paddy Fields

    YAMAZAKI Masatsugu , HAMADA Yukihiro , KAMIMOTO Nobuchika , MOMII Takashi , AIBA Yoshimi , YASUDA Nobuhiro , MIZUNO Shinya , YOSHIDA Shigekata , KIMURA Makoto

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations in diversity and community structure of aquatic organisms in paddy fields. The varieties and the number of aquatic organisms ranging in size from 30 mm to 2 cm in the floodwater of five Japanese paddy fields were surveyed every 10 d during the growth period of rice plant. Aquatic organisms were classified mainly at the order level. As a result, forty four varieties (classified groups) of aquatic organisms were detected in the present survey. The number of varieties significantly increased and the community structure of the aquatic organisms changed after mid-season drainage. Principal component analysis showed that three varieties (Volvocida, Oligotrichida, Cladocera) and four varieties (Lemnaceae, Pharyngophorida, Chaetonotida, Turbellaria) characterized the community structure of aquatic organisms before and after midseason drainage, respectively.

    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 49(1), 125-135, 2003-02-01

    DOI  References (48) Cited by (9)

  • Three-dimensional Structure of a Wing and Flow Field around a Flapping Dragonfly with the PIV System  [in Japanese]

    TSUYUKI Koji , SUDO Seiichi

    In the present paper, studies of dragonfly wing revealed the structural morphology and the aerodynamic characteristics. Some experimental studies on dragonfly wings were performed with a scanning electron micrograph, a three-dimensional curved shape measuring system and a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. Firstly, the scanning electron micrograph observed the cross section shape of a dragonfly wing. Secondly, the system for the measurement of surface shape measured the surface roughness of a dragonfly wing with μm order accuracy. The results of surface shape mesurement revealed there are three regions on a dragonfly wing, which had different function for a wing. Lastly, the PIV system measured the flow characteristics around the dragonfly wing and the flapping dragonfly. The analysis of two-dimensional velocity fields with the PIV system clarified the existence of the large velocity areas over a dragonfly wing and the specific flows around a flapping dragonfly.

    Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. Series B. 68(676), 3392-3399, 2002-12-25

    References (14) Cited by (6)

  • Optical Measurement of the Deformation, Motion, and Generated Force of the Wings of a Moth, Mythimna Separata (Walker)

    SUNADA Shigeru , SONG Deqiang , MENG Xiannan , WANG Hao , ZENG Lijiang , KAWACHI Keiji

    Motion and deformation of the wings of a moth <i>Mythimna Separata</i> (Walker) tethered to a steel beam were measured by using an optical method that uses fringe pattern projection. Simultaneously, the vertical force due to aerodynamic force generated by the wings was estimated by measuring the bending deformation of the beam during flapping motion of the moth. The force was estimated by subtracting the vertical forces due to inertial and centrifugal forces acting on the wings, which were estimated from the measured flapping motion, from the measured vertical force. Both the measured motion and deformation of the wing and the estimated vertical aerodynamic force generated by the wings suggest that the feathering angles are mainly affected by the inertial moment generated by the flapping motion and that the wing camber is mainly affected by the aerodynamic force generated by the wing.

    JSME International Journal Series B 45(4), 836-842, 2002-11-15

    J-STAGE  References (20) Cited by (1)

  • Mate Discrimination and Cuticular Hydrocarbons in Drosophila elegans and D. gunungcola

    ISHII Kaori , HIRAI Yoshiyuki , KATAGIRI Chihiro , KIMURA Masahito T.

    In Drosophila elegans, two morphs are known, the brown-morph occurring from southern China to Indonesia and the black-morph occurring in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, and Taiwan, and brown-morph populations at high altitudes in Indonesia at least sympatrically occur with a sibling species D. gunungcola. Sexual isolation has developed between the two morphs of D. elegans to some extent; females of the black-morph have a higher concentration of pentacosenes on cuticle than those of the brown-morph, and males of these morphs discriminate between the females based on this difference. In this study, it was examined whether sympatry and allopatry with D. gunungcola have resulted in the differentiation of mate recognition system in D. elegans. No significant difference was observed in the degree of mate discrimination between a sympatric pair of D. elegans and D. gunungcola and their allopatric pairs. Thus, no support was obtained for the above notion. Males of the brown- and black-morphs of D. elegans discriminate between females of own morphs and D. gunungcola. However, brown-morph males did not discriminate between females of the black-morph and D. gunungcola, and also black-morph males did not discriminate between females of the brown-morph and D. gunungcola. This may be attributed to that D. gunungcola females retained an intermediate level of pentacosenes between brown- and black-morph females.

    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 19(10), 1191-1196, 2002-10-25

    J-STAGE  NDL Digital Collections  References (18)

  • Factors Influencing the Distribution of Dragonflys (Odonata) in the Agricultural Landscape in Hokudan-cho, Hyogo Prefecture  [in Japanese]

    ICHINOSE Tomohiro , MORITA Toshinori

    淡路島北淡町の農村地域のため池24ヶ所において,2000年の6月から9月の間,トンボ類の分布を調査した。出現したトンボ類の種数とため池の水域面積の間には明らかな関係が見られなかった。TW-NSPANによって,24ヶ所のため池は5つのタイプに分類された。ため池の環境についての変数を説明変数として,分類・回帰樹木を用いて分析を行った結果,ため池の区分には,ため池の位置する標高,隣接する樹林の存在,水域面積,水質が影響を及ぼしていることがわかった。特に,ため池の周囲の約半分以上で樹林と接していれば,林縁や暗い環境を好む種が出現することが明らかになった。

    Journal of The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture 65(5), 501-506, 2002-03-30

    JASI  J-STAGE  References (28) Cited by (10)

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