Search Results 81-100 of 387

  • Comparative Ecology of Motacilla grandis (Japanese wagtail) and Motacilla cinerea (grey wagtail)


    Memoirs of the Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University. IV, Science reports 28, 179-182, 2002-12


  • The Wing Apparatus and Flapping Behavior of Hymenoptera

    SUDO Seiichi , TSUYUKI Koji , ITO Yoshiyasu , TANI Junji

    The wing apparatus of Hymenoptera was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the structure and function of insect wings were studied. The measurements of displacement of extrinsic skeleton vibration produced by wing flapping of a wasp were made by an optical displacement detector system. The free flight of the wasp was analyzed by a three dimensional motion analysis system. The results of a series of measurements revealed the flight characteristics of Hymenoptera, such as the wing tip velocity, wing path, wave form of extrinsic skeleton vibration, and so forth.

    JSME International Journal Series C 44(4), 1103-1110, 2001-12-01

    J-STAGE  References (17) Cited by (10)

  • Lacerta vivipara in the Sarobetsu Wetlands(Feedback on the 30 Years of the Japanese Wildlife Research Society)  [in Japanese]

    Kudo Akio , Inage Makoto , Sagawa Shirou , Kadosaki Masaaki

    The distribution of Lacerta vivipara was investigated at fourteen sites on the Sarobetsu Wetlands from late July to late August, 1997-1998. A total of sixteen lizards were collected from eight sites of all. The mean number of collected lizards were 0.19 per 100 trap nights. They were randomly distributed in the Sarobetsu Wetlands. Sexual dimorphism was observed through the differences in tail width. They fed on small insects living in the grass and underground. Takdromus tachydromoides were collected with Lacerta vivipara at the same site.



  • The Tinthiinae of North Vietnam (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae)

    KALLIES Axel , ARITA Yutaka

    ここ10年くらいの間にベトナムの鱗翅目相がかなり解明されてきた.スカシバガ科も多数の昆虫研究者の協力によってかなりの資料が得られるようになった.著者らも1996年よりベトナムでの調査を開始し,1997年よりスカシバガ科の合成性フェロモンを使用することにより多数の種類と多くの個体を収集することができた.近年のベトナムのスカシバガ科の報告は,Romieuxによって1950年に採集され,主にスイスのジュネーブ博物館に保存されている資料によってなされている(Gorbunov,1988;Gorbunov&Arita,1995a,1995b,1995c,1996,1997).また,著者らの資料による報告もなされつつある(Arita&Gorbunov,2000a,2000b,2000c;Gorbunov&Arita,2000a;Arita&Kallies,2000).本報告では,スカシバガ科,ヒメスカシバガ亜科に所属する21種を報告した.ヒメスカシバガ亜科を調べた結果,他の鱗翅目と同様に,北ベトナムのファウナは北東インドや南中国と関係が深いことが明らかになった.すなわち,Trichocerota.dizona Hampson,1919,T.radians Hampson,1919およびT.proxima Le Cerf,1916などは北東インドから知られており,今回北ベトナムからも記録された.さらに,Caudicornia tonkinensis sp.nov.,Entrichella pogonias Bryk,1947およびTrichocerota melli sp.nov.などは南中国からも記録された.Subfamily Tinthiinae Le Cerf,1917 Tinthiini Le Cerf,1917 Ceratocorema Hampson,1893,gen.rev.=Neotinthia Hampson,1919,syn nov.C.hyalina sp.nov.(Figs 2,31,45)非常に小さいスカシバガでこの属の他の種類はインド,ミヤンマー,ラオス,マレーシアなどから知られている.C.yoshiyasui sp.nov.(Figs 3,46)前種同様に小さい種で北ベトナムのクックホンで得られた.Parathrenopsis Le Cerf,1911=Oligophlebiella Strand,1916,syn.nov.P.flaviventris sp.nov.(Figs 4,47)この属の種類は,東アジアと東南アジアから5種類が知られているのみである.Caudicornia Bryk,1947 C.xanthopimpla Bryk,1947(Figs 5,32)この種類は北部ミャンマーから知られていたが,今回北ベトナムの最高峰のファンシーパン山の近くのサパ(標高1,950mのところ)で合成性フェロモンによって採集された.C.tonkinensis sp.nov.(Figs 6,7,33,48)図示したように際だった性的二型の種類である.幼虫はキイチゴの一種の前年茎の基部近くに潜っているのが発見され,飼育の結果本種の雌が羽化した.雄は午後に合成性フェロモンに飛来した.本種は南中国からも発見された.Entrichella Bryk,1947 E.pogonias Bryk,1947(Figs 8,9,10,34)本種は,中国のE.leiaeformis(Walker,1865)や同じく中国のE.meilinensis(Xu&Liu,1993)や韓国のE.shakojianus(Matsumura,1931)などに酷似している.再調査が必要である.E.tricolor sp.nov.(Figs 11,12,34,49)この種は腹部第4と5節の橙黄色と白の帯によってこの属の他の種類と容易に区別される.南中国からも記録された.Trichocerota Hampson,1893 T.proxima Le Cerf,1916,comb.rev.(Figs 13,36)本種は腹部基半分が黒褐色で残りの半分が灰色がかった黄色の2色で,他の種類とは際だって異なる.北部ミャンマーから知られていたが,北部ベトナムからも記録された.T.radians Hampson,1919(Figs 14,15)本種も前翅の長い透明部分から他の種と容易に区別される.北東インドから知られていたが,北部ベトナムからも記録された.T.spilogastra(Le Cerf,1916),comb.rev.本種はすでに,Gorbunov&Arita(1995c)によってベトナムより記録された.T.melli sp.nov.(Figs 16,17,37,50)本種の前翅の青い輝きはこの属の種としては非常に特徴的である.中国南東部と北ベトナムから記録された.Paradoxecia Hampson,1919=Paranthrenina Bryk,1947,syn.nov.P.myrmekomorpha(Bryk,1947),comb.nov.(Figs 18,19,38)本種は腹部基半分が黒褐色で,外半分が灰黄色である.北部ミャンマーから知られていたが,今回北ベトナムからも発見された.P.vietnamica Gorbunov&Arita,1997本種は,Gorbunov&Arita(1997)によって記載された1雌が知られているのみである.P.luteocincta sp.nov.(Fig.20)本種は腹部の幅広い2本の帯が特徴的である.P.karubei sp.nov.(Figs 21,51)本種は腹部の幅広い橙黄色の帯が特徴的である.P.dizona(Hampson,1919),comb.nov.(Figs 22,23,39,52)本種は北東インドから知られていたが,今回北ベトナムから発見された.P.tristis sp.nov.(Figs 24,25,40,53)本種は腹部に帯が全く現われないことからこの属の他の種類から区別される.Rectala Bryk,1947 R.magnifica sp.nov.(Figs 26,27,41,54)本種は雌雄ともに腹部に幅広い黄色の帯が存在することにより他種と間違うことはない.Pennisetiini Naumann,1971 Corematosetia gen.nov.翅脈はヒメスカシバガ亜科のPennisetia属に似るが,雄の触角がPennisetia属ではbipectinate(両櫛歯状)であるのに対して本属では単毛である.また雄のゲニタリアではバルバが大変異なる.C.naumanni sp.nov.(Figs 28,42,43)北ベトナムのタムダオで1雄が得られているのみである.Similipepsini Spatenka et al.,1993 Similipepsis Le Cerf,1911=Vespaegeria Strand,1913 S.helicellus sp.nov.(Figs 29,30,44)本種は開張15mmと大変小さく,また腹部が強くくびれており,チビドロバチに非常によく擬態している.Milisipepsis Gorbunov&Arita,1995 M.bicingulata(Gorbunov&Arita,1995)本種は,Gorubunov&Arita(1995c)によって記載されたホロタイプのみが知られている.

    Lepidoptera Science 52(3), 187-235, 2001

    J-STAGE  References (43) Cited by (4)

  • Studies on Chironomidae in waterfronts : current status and future prospects  [in Japanese]


    Previous reviews on chironomid studies mainly dealt with lake profundal works, with emphasis on larval distribution and life histories. This review focuses on waterfronts (i.e. shallow waters and shores including adjacent terrestrial area) as habitats for Chironomidae and summaries recent works on the ecology of both larvae and adults. Shore zones encompass different types of habitat for chironomids, including rocky, stony, sandy and silty substrates, emerged and submerged vegetation and wood, and aquatic animal bodies. It is known that areas with aquatic plants tend to support the largest number of chironomid species and therefore constitute the most important habitat for them. The abundance and types of vegetation are considered to influence the diversity of chironomid assemblages. Chironomids of non-conventional waterfront habitats such as semi-terrestrial zone, wetland areas and rice paddies have so far received little reserach effort in Japan. Their biological characteristics were briefly reviewed. Recent works on the use of chironomids as environmental indicators were reviewed, with particular reference to waterfront habitats. Consideration was given to the current status and future prospects of chironomid studies in Japan. As research on chironomids in waterfront habitats is still in its infancy in Japan, there is a need for further works including the establishment of national registry/management of type specimens.

    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 51(1), 23-40, 2001

    J-STAGE  References (151) Cited by (1)

  • Relationship between Shape-archtecture of Miscanthus sacchariflorus Community and Bio-diversity of the Thysanopteran Insects on Banks within Urban Area  [in Japanese]

    NAKAO Shiro , MATSUMOTO Katsumasa , NAKASHIMA Atsushi , YABU Shinobu , YAMADA Hiroyuki

    都市部河川敷の緑地が担う微小昆虫アザミウマ類 (総翅目) の生息空間としての機能を明らかにして, その管理の方向性を提案する目的で, 京都市街の桂川と宇治川流域の河辺のオギ群落において, 群落の形状, 構造とアザミウマ類の生息状況との関係を調査した。特にアザミウマ類については種数種構成個体数, 各種の食性や害虫としての位置づけ, ならびに各個体の翅型に着目し, 調査対象としたオギ群落の生息空間としての特性を検討した。その結果, 河川敷のオギ緑地の管理においては線的および面的空間連続性よりも, 時間的および立体 (三次元) 的空間構造連続性を高めることにより, アザミウマ類の多様性保全と都市部河川敷のアメニティー空間確保が両立可能であると示唆された。

    Journal of The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture 64(5), 601-606, 2001-03-30

    J-STAGE  References (24) Cited by (5)

  • Seasonal changes in food habits of Japanese martens in Hinode-cho and Akiruno-shi, Tokyo  [in Japanese]

    Nakamura Toshihiko , Kanzaki Nobuo , Maruyama Naoki

    Food habits of the Japanese marten (<i>Martes melampus</i>) were studied by scat analysis, and 11 questionnaires send to camp-site managers in Hinode-cho and Akiruno-shi, 50 km west of Tokyo Metropolitan district, between October 1997 and November 1998. In this area martens mainly ate fruits, insects and small mammals but not human food remains. A similar trend was found when 4 other studies in Kisokomagatake, Nikko, and Tsushima were compared with this data by using cluster analysis.

    Wildlife Conservation Japan 6(1), 15-24, 2001

    J-STAGE  References (17) Cited by (1)

  • Life history of the flea beetle, Argopistes coccinelliformis Csiki (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) VII. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on induction of reproductive diapause in newly emerged adults

    INOUE Takenari

    At 20°C, only 0–19% of newly emerged females of <i>Argopistes coccinelliformis</i> laid eggs under short-day conditions (LD 13.5 : 10.5, 13 : 11 and 12 : 12), but all females laid eggs within 30 days after emergence under long-day conditions (LD 14.5 : 9.5 and 15 : 9). The critical photoperiod was between LD 13.5 : 10.5 and 14 : 10. At 25°C, 27–39% of females laid eggs within 60 days after emergence even under short-day conditions (LD 12.5 : 11.5 and 12 : 12). All females laid eggs under long-day conditions (LD 14.5 : 9.5 and 15 : 9), but the preoviposition periods were longer than those at 20°C. The critical photoperiod was between LD 14 : 10 and 14.5 : 9.5 when it was estimated on the 20th day from emergence and between LD 12.5 : 11.5 and 13 : 11 when it was estimated on the 60th day. At 28°C, 41–73% of females laid eggs within 60 days after emergence under short-day conditions (LD 13 : 11, 12.5 : 11.5 and 12 : 12), but 14–33% of females did not lay eggs, even under long-day conditions. The critical photoperiod could not be determined. From the past and the present data, I concluded that <i>A. coccinelliformis</i> might produce 4 generations per year around Tokyo, central Japan, if new sprouts of host plants are available beyond the spring. The best season for trimming host plants would be late autumn–early winter to control the flea beetle population.

    Applied Entomology and Zoology 36(1), 53-58, 2001-02-25

    J-STAGE  References (13) Cited by (1)

  • Insect Hormone  [in Japanese]

    TAMURA Masato

    House and household insect pests 22(2), 68-80, 2000-12-01

    NDL Digital Collections  References (58)

  • Mating Success of Small Sized Males of Japanese Stag Beetle Prosopocoilus dissimilis okinawanus Nomura  [in Japanese]


    オキナワノコギリクワガタの雄は, 体サイズ及び大アゴの形態により, 大型(L), 中型(S2), 小型(S1)の3つの型に分けられる.雄間闘争で不利であると考えられる最も小形の雄(S1型)が, 野外で多数発見されることから, これらの雄は大形の雄(L型)とは異なる方法で交尾成功を得ていると考えられた.そこで野外における雌と各型の雄の時刻別の出現頻度と交尾率を調べた.その結果, L型の交尾率は, 雌の出現数が最大となった22&acd;23時にピークとなる一山型を示したのに対し, S1型の交尾率は, 日没後の20&acd;21時と明け方の4-5時にピークを持つ二山型となった.また, 中形の雄(S2型)は, L型と同じ時刻にピークを持つ一山型の交尾率を示した.観察された交尾数は, L型とS1型がともに同じ(70)であった.しかし, 1日の交尾率で比較すると, L型は46.1%であるのに対して, S1型は18.6%とL型の2分の1以下となった.以上のことより, S1型は, L型及びS2型とは異なる時刻に交尾成功を得ていることが分かったが, 1日当りの交尾成功が低いことから, シーズンを通した交尾成功の調査が必要と考えられる.

    Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series) 3(4), 157-165, 2000

    J-STAGE  References (16) Cited by (2)

  • Phylogenetic Analysis of Water Striders (Hemiptera: Gerroidea) Based on Partial Sequences of Mitochondrial and Nuclear Ribosomal RNA Genes

    MURAJI Masahiko , TACHIKAWA Shuji

    Portions of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) and nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA gene (28S rDNA) were sequenced using 30 species belonging to the superfamily Gerroidea and two outgroup taxa. Comparison of nucleotide sequences showed that both genes contain highly variable and flanking conserved regions and that it is sometimes difficult to align several portions within variable regions. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences showed that base substitutions were biased toward A-T transversions and C-T transitions in the 16S and 28S rDNA, respectively. Resolution of phylogenetic trees was relatively low when the 16S and 28S rDNA were analyzed separately, whereas it was improved when the two DNA sequences were combined. Bootstrap analyses using combined sequences supported monophylies of many of the taxonomic groupings. However, relationships between the Gerridae and Veliidae and among major clades within these families were not clearly resolved. Because a close adherence among these taxa was indicated by base substitutions in both of the independently evolved mitochondrial and nuclear rDNAs, such a relationship may be due to the evolutionary history of this insect group.

    Entomological Science 3(4), 615-626, 2000-12-25

    NDL Digital Collections  References (27) Cited by (1)

  • Induction of darkening by corazonins in several species of Orthoptera and their possible presence in ten insect orders

    TANAKA Seiji

    [His<SUP>7</SUP>]-corazonin is known to play an important role in the control of body-color polymorphism in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Another neuropeptide, [Arg<SUP>7</SUP>]-corazonin, which has been isolated from other insects, is also known to induce darkening in this locust. These two neuropeptides were injected into nymphs of other orthopteran species to determine if they could induce darkening in those species. The test species belonged to 4 families: Acrididae (Acrida cinerea, Gastrimargus marmoratus and Nomadacris succincta), Catantopidae (Oxya yezoensis), Pyrgomorphidae (Atractomorpha lata) and Tettigoniidae (Euconocephalus pallidus). Except for the katydid, E. pallidus, all species injected with 1 nmol of [His<SUP>7</SUP>]-corazonin turned dark as compared with oil-injected controls. [Arg<SUP>7</SUP>]-corazonin showed a similar effect in the two acridid species tested, but no effect in the katydid. These results suggest that [His<SUP>7</SUP>]-corazonin or a similar neuropeptide may be involved in the control of body color in the locusts and grasshoppers, but not in the katydid. When a brain and/or corpora cardiaca (CC) taken from nymphs of each test species were implanted in albino nymphs of L. migratoria, dark color was induced in the latter, indicating that all test orthopterans contained some factor identical or similar to [His<SUP>7</SUP>]- or [Arg<SUP>7</SUP>]-corazonin. Likewise, brain-CC complexes from 47 other species of 10 insect orders including Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Dictyoptera, Isoptera, Homoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera induced darkening in albino locusts, whereas those from 8 species of COleoptera all failed to do so.

    Applied Entomology and Zoology 35(4), 509-517, 2000-11-25

    J-STAGE  References (38) Cited by (4)

  • Nucleotide sequence variation and phylogenetic utility of the mitochondrial COI fragment in anthocoride bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    MURAJI Masahiko , KAWASAKI Kenjiro , SHIMIZU Toru

    From 11 strains of seven anthocorid species and one outgroup taxon, Nezara viridula, a portion of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced. Pairwise comparisons of nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences revealed the biased nature of nucleotide substitutions constrained by a coding function of the gene. Among 974 nucleotide substitutions detected in the anthocorid taxa, 80.9% were seen in the third position of codons. In this position, uncorrected nucleotide divergences increased very quickly with the increase of taxonomic levels and reached a plateau at the within-subgenus level. Among nucleotide substitutions in the first position of codons, which accounted for 16.6% of all nucleotide changes, 88.9% have occurred as a T-C transition between triplets within the degenerate codon family encoding leucine. Phylogenetic analysis results suggest that the COI fragment may only be useful for the relationships among closely related taxa within a subgenus.

    Applied Entomology and Zoology 35(3), 301-307, 2000-08-25

    J-STAGE  References (22)

  • Possible Removal of Rival Sperm by the Elongated Genitalia of the Earwig, Euborellia plebeja

    KAMIMURA Yoshitaka

    Sperm displacement is a sperm competition avoidance mechanism that reduces the paternity of males that have already mated with the female. Direct anatomical sperm removal or sperm flushing is known to occur in four insect orders: Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In a fifth order, Dermaptera (earwigs), I found that the virga (the elongated rod of the male genitalia) of Euborellia plebeja seems to be used to remove rival sperm from the spermatheca (a fine-tubed female sperm storage organ). In this species, copulation lasted on average 4.6 minutes, during which time the male inserted the virga deep into the spermatheca, and then extracted it ejaculating semen from the opening of the virgal tip. The extraction of virgae (with its brim-like tip) appeared to cause removal of stored sperm in the spermatheca. The virga was as long as the body length of males, and the spermatheca was twice the female body length. The long length of the spermatheca and the possible removal function of the virga may select for virgal elongation.

    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 17(5), 667-672, 2000-07-01

    J-STAGE  NDL Digital Collections  References (26) Cited by (2)

  • Photoperiodic Control of Development and Reproductive Diapause in the Leaf Beetle Ophraella communa LeSage

    WATANABE Masahiko

    The life cycle and reproductive development of the chrysomelid, Ophraella communa, were investigated in the field and laboratory. Females stopped ovarian development and gradually accumulated lipids, mainly triacylglycerols, in mid August through late September, suggesting that the female adults shifted from the non-diapause to diapause phase during this period. Adult diapause was induced at a 14-h or shorter photoperiod. Although mating occurred during early adulthood under any photoperiodic conditions, both sexes at a short day photoperiod built up fat reserves, stopped feeding and tended to hide themselves under objects. These results, together with field surveys, appear to indicate that the beetles mate in the autumn, feed intensively to accumulate fat reserves and then leave the host plant for hibernacula shortly before winter.

    Entomological Science 3(2), 245-253, 2000-06-25

    NDL Digital Collections  References (20) Cited by (3)

  • Myrmecophagy in a Ranid Frog Rana rugosa: Specializatlon or Weak Avoidance to Ant Eating?

    HIRAI Toshiaki , MATSUI Masafumi

    We studied diets of an Asian ranid, Rana rugosa, inhabiting three different environments (reservoir, river shoreline, and paddy fields) in Kyoto, Japan. In all the three habitats, ants were the most frequently consumed prey, representing surprisingly similar proportions in both the frequency of occurrence (81.9-85.7%) and the number of total prey items (56.8-59.4%). These values are exceptionally large for Rana, and equivalent to those reported for ant specialists in other families of frogs such as dendrobatids or bufonids. However, R. rugosa consumed ants lower in proportions than those found in the environment, and could not be regarded as purely ant specialists. Instead, we conclude that this species tends to avoid ants more weakly than other species of Rana. Other than ants, larger prey were more and smaller ones less frequently taken in proportion to frog body size, indicating that the frog consumes ants because of its weak avoidance of these abundant potential prey.

    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 17(4), 459-466, 2000-05-20

    IR  J-STAGE  NDL Digital Collections  References (60) Cited by (5)

  • Dynamics Pattern Formation for Wings of Pterygota in an Eclosion : Pattern Analysis for Wings with the Imago

    SEINO Mitsuhiro , KAKAZU Yoshitaka

    The vein and cell patterns for the fore and hind wing of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Odonata are analyzed and discussed. For vein patterns of them, the fractal properties are shown and the inequality between four orders is obtained. The nature of wings observed by mass distributions for fractal dimensions of the vein pattern is presented.

    Progress of theoretical physics. Supplement 138, 600-301, 2000-04-28

    DOI  NDL Digital Collections  References (4) Cited by (1)

  • <Original text>Vegetation and Species Diversity of Aquatic Insects in the Ziou Marsh, Northern Osaka  [in Japanese]


    大阪府能勢町の地黄湿地において,1998年4月から11月にかけて水生昆虫群集の調査を行うとともに,7月と10月には植生調査を実施した。その結果,本湿地から40科60種の維管束植物が確認され,優占種は7月にはチゴザサ,コマツカサススキ,フトヒルムシロ,イ,アリノトウグサ,10月にはこれらに加えてシロイヌヒゲ,サワギキョウ,シカクイ,スイラン,ヒメシロネ,ススキなどが認められた。また環境庁(1997)のレッドデータリストにおいて絶滅危惧II類にランクされたサギソウとムラサキミミカキグサが確認された。水中の昆虫については,全調査期間を通じて8目52種のべ24,363個体が確認され,環境庁(1991)のレッドデータブックに危急種としてランクされているタガメや大阪府内で減少の著しいハッチョウトンボ,ガムシ,クロゲンゴロウなども確認された。52種のうち20種(39%)は幼虫のみ,22種(42%)は成虫のみ,残り10種(19%)は成虫と幼虫の両方が見られた。また優占種は,マツモムシ,コミズムシ類,ユスリカsp.1,ヒメアメンボ,ユスリカsp.2,フタバカゲロウの一種,オオルリボシヤンマで,これら7種で全個体数の80%を占めた。トンボ類の成虫は9科29種のべ2,172個体が確認され,近畿地方で比較的生息地の限られているモートンイトトンボ,ヨツボシトンボ,ヒメアカネなども確認された。優占種は,ヒメアカネ,ハッチョウトンボ,ホソミオツネントンボ,ナツアカネ,クロイトトンボで,これら5種で全個体数の約60%を占めた。本湿地で特徴的なハッチョウトンボについて季節消長を解析したところ,成虫は5~8月に見られ,雌より雄の方が半月ほど遅くまで見られることがわかった。本湿地は水深や植生などの異なる環境のモザイクになっているが,本報告ではこれらの環境による水生昆虫群集の違いについても解析を行った。Vegetation and species diversity of aquatic insects were investigated in the Ziou Marsh in Nose Town, northern Osaka Prefecture, central Japan from April to November, 1998. A total of 60 species of vascular plants belonging to 40 families were found in the marsh. Dominant species were Isachne globossa, Scirpus fuirenoides, Potamogeton fryeri, Juncus effusus var. decipiens, Haloragis micrantha, etc. A total of 52 species of aquatic insects were observed in the water. In 20 (39%) and 22 (42%) out of the 52 species, only larvae and adults were observed respectively. Dominant species were Notonecta triguttata, Chironomidae sp.1,Sigara spp., Gerris latiabdominis, and Chironomidae sp.2,Cloeon sp., and Aeshna nigroflava, representing about 80% of the total number of aquatic insects observed in this marsh. As for adult Odonata, a total of 29 species from 9 families were found in this marsh. Dominant species were Sympetrum kunckeli, Nannophya pygmaea, Indolestes peregrinus, S. darwinianum, and Cercion calamorum, representing about 60% of the total individuals found. Adults of the tiny dragonfly, N. pygmaea, were observed from May to August in this marsh, though females disappeared about half a month earlier.

    Scientific report of the College of Agriculture, Osaka Prefecture University 52, 29-41, 2000-03-31


  • Evolution of Hypervariable Regions, V4 and V7, of Insect 18S rRNA and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    HWANG Ui Wook , REE Han II , KIM Won

    We compared primary and secondary structures of V4 (helices E23-2 to E23-5) and V7 (helix 43) regions of 18S rRNAs in insects and the other three major arthropod groups (crustaceans, myriapods, and chelicerates) known so far. We found that the lengths of primary sequences and the shapes of seconadry stuctures of these two hypervariable regions of insect 18S rRNA even at infraclass levels are phylogenetically informative and reflect maojor steps in insect evolution. The long sequence insertion and bifurcated shape of helices E23-2 to E23-5 in the V5 region are unique synapomorphic characters for winged insects (Pterygota). The long sequence insertion and expanded stem length of helix 43 in the V7 region are synapomorphic characters for holometabolous insects which conduct complete metamorphosis. The strongly conserved secondary structures suggest the possibility that these hypervariable regions may be related with certain important cellular functions unknown thus far. The comparison with insect fossil records revealed that the pterygote synapomorphy (V4) and the holometabolous synapomorphy (V7) were established prior to the acquisition of insect wings (flight system) and prior to the development of complete metamorphosis, respectively. These synapomorphies have been also relatively stable over at least 300 Myr and 280 Myr, respectively as well. It implies that the expanison events of the V4 and V7 regions have not occurred simulatneously byt independently at different periods during the insect evolution. Then this suffests that V4 and V7 regions are not functionally correlated as recently suggested by Crease and Coulbourn.

    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 17(1), 111-121, 2000-01-20

    J-STAGE  NDL Digital Collections  References (37)

  • <Mem. Natn. Sci. Mus., Tokyo>The Orthopteroid Insects Found in the Imperial Palace, Tokyo  [in Japanese]

    Yamasaki Tsukane

    Memoirs of the National Science Museum (36), 19-27, 2000-12

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