人工内耳手術後の成人・小児における聴覚の再学習と可塑性 : 言語臨床の観点から  [in Japanese] Auditory System Plasticity and Auditory Processing of Speech in Cochlear Implant Recipients  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

人工内耳装用成人65名, 小児8名の語音知覚検査結果に基づき, 言語臨床の観点から聴覚機能の再学習や可塑性, および聴覚情報の処理メカニズムについてRetrospectiveに検討した.人工内耳装用による語音の知覚率は個人差が著しく, その個体要因として, 失聴時期と失聴期間が関与することが示唆された.一般に失聴時期が早く失聴期間が長いと言語知覚率は劣化する傾向にあったが, 長期間の失聴でも聴覚の再学習は可能であることが示唆された.ところが, 小児は, 先天性でも3歳前後の手術症例はオープンセットの語音知覚が可能になり, 幼児の脳の可塑性の高さが示唆された.言語習得期での失聴児は, 失聴期間が2年以内の症例は聴覚機能の再学習が早かった.なお, 聴覚情報の音声処理機構については, 成人はトップダウンの概念処理が主であった.小児はボトムアップ処理が先行し, 言語獲得に伴いトップダウン処理併用がみられた.

Speech perception ability in deaf adults and children fitted with a cochlear implant system was reviewed retrospectively from the points of auditory system plasticity and auditory processing of speech signals. The results of speech perception analysis varied largely. In adult, persons whose onset of deafness occurred after establishing language competence and/or whose duration of deafness was less than thirty years scored better than those having longer period of deafness. In the children's group, recipients who received an implant before age 3 showed high performance even if their hearing was deprived from birth. This indicates that the auditory system retains its plasticity deadness and regenerates when given a stimulus. Analysis of auditory processing of speech information showed hierarchical processing: top-down processing was dominant in adults while bottom-up processing dominated in young children. As children acquire language including its semantics and syntax, they use the parallel processing.

Journal

  • The Japan Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

    The Japan Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics 39(3), 305-314, 1998-07-20

    The Japan Society of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

References:  18

Cited by:  3

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10007699874
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00034826
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    00302813
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  J-STAGE 
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