ホルムアルデヒドの経口および吸入暴露による毒性と水道水における安全性の評価  [in Japanese] Toxicity Evaluation of Formaldehyde and Its Risk Assessment for Drinking Water Via Oral and Inhalation Exposure  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 広瀬 明彦 HIROSE Akihiko
    • 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所安全性生物試験研究センター Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences
    • 鎌田 栄一 KAMATA Eiichi
    • 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所安全性生物試験研究センター Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences
    • 紅林 秀雄 KUREBAYASHI Hideo
    • 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所安全性生物試験研究センター Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences
    • 江馬 眞 EMA Makoto
    • 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所大阪支所 Osaka Branch, National Institute of Health Sciences
    • 安藤 正典 ANDO Masanori
    • 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所環境衛生化学部 Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences
    • 黒川 雄二 KUROKAWA Yuji
    • 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所安全性生物試験研究センター Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences
    • 長谷川 隆一 HASEGAWA Ryuichi
    • 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所安全性生物試験研究センター Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences

Abstract

Humans could be exposed to formaldehyde, a by-product of drinking water disinfectants, by both oral intaki and inhalation. The guideline value of formaldehyde in drinking water was established by WHO in 1992, and the guideline for air quality was also published by WHO in 2000. However, the inhalation exposure was not incorporated into WHO drinking water guideline establishment. In this article, we re-evaluated oral toxicity and inhalation toxicity studies in addition to the latest information, and calculated Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) via oral administration and tolerable air concentration via inhalation. Then, the human health risk of formaldehyde was assessed via an oral administration and via an inhalation, separately.<br>For oral administration, TDI for general toxicity was calculated an 0.15 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup> from NOAEL of 15 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>, divided by uncertainty factor (UF) of 100 because of the lack of oral carcinogenicity. A 10% benchmark dose of 0.3 mg·m<sup>-3</sup> in general inhalation toxicity and a NOAEL of 2.5 mg·m<sup>-3</sup> in inhalation carcinogenicity were selected as the starting points for calculation of tolerable air concentration. The tolerable air concentrations based on general toxicity and carcinogenicity study were calculated as 0.037 mg·m<sup>-3</sup> divided by UF of 8 and 0.031 mg·m<sup>-3</sup> divided by UF of 80, respectively. Based on the above TDI or tolerable air concentrations, we assessed the risk of formaldehyde in drinking water, using two exposure scenario, and concluded that the detected levels of formaldehyde in the recent national investigation reports might not affect to human health.

Journal

  • Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment

    Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment 24(5), 308-316, 2001-05-10

    Japan Society on Water Environment

References:  45

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10008004951
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10372439
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    09168958
  • NDL Article ID
    5802515
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZN5(科学技術--建設工学・建設業--都市工学・衛生工学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z16-1045
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  J-STAGE 
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