エイズに合併する肺病変 [in Japanese] PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH AIDS [in Japanese]
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HIV infection was first reported in 1981 in USA. It has been 20 years since then. Owing to understandings of pathogenesis of this disease and development of new drugs such as the HIV-specific protease inhibitor (PI), prognosis of disease hs been tremendously improved. Especially after 1997 in Japan, the strategy of anti-HIV treatment shifted from two drugs combination to three drugs combination, which is called highly active antiretoviral therapy (HAART). HAART was so effective that prevalence of HIV associated opportunistic infections were decreased dramatically. Mortality among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was decreased from 6.7% in 1996 to 2.6% since then in ACC. However, 80% of patients receiving HAART suffered from side effects and 15% of them had to be changed their treatment due to side effects. Furthermore, an unexpected side effect, namely lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS), was emerged among patients who were receiving HAART more than one year. LDS was first reported as re-distribution of lipid such as central obesity with or without lipo-atrophy from extremities and/or face. Now only cosmetic change, but also it is associated with elevation of lipid and glucose level. Therefore, those patients who have LDS are in face of the risk for the ischemic heart diseases. Our survey indicated that the rate of LDS in Japanese patients were almost same as that of Caucasian patients reported elsewhere. <I>Opportunistic infections associated with HIV infection</I><BR>Treatment for HIV infection consists of two major arms one is use of anti-HIV drugs to prevent development of AIDS described above and the other is diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. There are five very important opportunistic infections <I>Pneumocystis carinii</I> pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcus meningitis, toxoplasma encephalitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and <I>Mycobacterium avium</I> complex (MAC) bacteremia. Because if these five were able to diagnose, a patient can survive under appropriate treatment. On the other hand, if these were not diagnosed, patient must be AIDS death. After introducing HAART, number of CMV retinitis, MAC bacteremia, and AIDS dementia complex were decreasing. However, number of PCP sustained high because PCP is the first indicator disease of AIDS if the patient did not know his HIV status. The first choice of drug is sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) for PCP treatment. If the patient were in severe respiratory of ailure, corticosteroid is used concomitantly. Treatment is usually continued for 3 weeks. We have successfully treated 45 out of 47 cases of PCP for 4 years. However, those patients treated with ST for 3 weeks were limited only 35% because of very high rate of side effects of ST. If the patient was intolerant to ST, treatment was switched to pentamidine. After finishing the treatment, the patient is to be treated with a 5-day course of oral desensitization to ST. More than 80% of patients who were previously intolerant to ST became successfully getting tolerance by this method.
Kekkaku(Tuberculosis) 77(1), 37-40, 2002-01-15
JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR TUBERCULOSIS