アマランスとキノアの澱粉の評価 Characterization of Amaranth and Quinoa Starches

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Abstract

アマランスとキノアの成熟種子それぞれ9試料と4試料より澱粉粒を調製し,いくつかの性質を調べた.アマランス澱粉中のアミロース含量は0-28%,キノア澱粉では25-27%の範囲に分布していた.いずれの澱粉もアミロペクチンの長鎖画分はトウモロコシ澱粉よりも若干多く,重合度50までの短鎖画分の中では重合度8-12の単位鎖の分布が高く,13-20までの分布が低い特異な鎖長分布を示した.アマランス澱粉の糊化温度はトウモロコシ澱粉に比べて高く,キノア澱粉は低かった.糊化熱はいずれの澱粉もトウモロコシ澱粉に比べて幾分小さかった.いずれの澱粉粒も澱粉粒が非常に小さいため,トウモロコシ澱粉粒に比べ,生澱粉粒分解酵素による消化性は高かった.X線回折図形はいずれの澱粉もA図形を示した.

Starch granules were prepared from mature grains of 9 samples of Amayanthus and 4 samples of Chenopodium quinoa. By the ordinary gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) of Pseudomonas isoamylase-debranched starch materials, the amylose content of amaranth starches was in a range of 0-28%. Thus, we confirmed that there were normal, low amylose, and waxy types of amaranth starches. The amylose content of quinoa starches was 25-27%. The ratio of short chains to long chains of amylopectin of these starches was in a range of 2.2-3.3 and somewhat lower than or similar to that of normal maize starch. Isoamylase-debranched materials were separated by HPLC with a differential refractometer (RI) and low-angle laser light-scattering photometer (LALLS) as detectors as one means, and by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD) as the other. We found that amylopectins of Amayanthus and Chenopodium quinoa had increased amounts of long B chains and decreased amounts of short chains as compared to the waxy maize amylopectin, however, they had increased amounts of short chains with DP (degree of polymerization) from 8 to 12. Amaranth starches had slightly higher temperatures of gelatinization (T0, Tp and Tc) and smaller heats of gelatinization (d H) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as compared to normal maize starch. Quinoa starches showed lower T0, T p and T and smaller ΔH. Amaranth and quinoa starch granules were digested by amylases faster than those of normal maize.

Journal

  • Journal of Applied Glycoscience

    Journal of Applied Glycoscience 46(3), 233-240, 1999-08-31

    The Japanese Society of Applied Glycoscience

References:  30

Cited by:  12

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10008259110
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10453916
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    13403494
  • NDL Article ID
    4846076
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZP24(科学技術--化学・化学工業--糖・澱粉)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z17-15
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  J-STAGE  JASI 
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