飽食および制限給与が繁殖雌豚の長期間の繁殖性に及ぼす影響 [in Japanese] Effects of Full Feeding and Restricted Feeding on the Reproductive Performances in the Gilts and the Sows [in Japanese]
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飽食および制限給与が繁殖豚の育成段階から性成熟, さらにその後の繁殖性に及ぼす影響について検討した。<br>実験1では, 6腹のLHの雌子豚27頭および1腹のLWの雌子豚4頭を飽食区 (10頭)・標準区 (10頭)・制限区 (11頭) の3区に分けて, 体重50kg前後から性成熟まで調査した。体重120kgまでは日本飼養標準の繁殖育成豚の飼料給与量に準じて標準区を設定し, 制限区はその70%, 飽食区は飽食とした。飽食区, 標準区, 制限区の体重120kg到達日齢および初発情日齢は, それぞれ206.5±21.0, 223.2±16.5, 302.1±43.4日および248.3±18.8, 262.2±25.6, 297.1±37.7日であり, 飽食区・標準区と制限区の間でいずれも有意差が認められた。<br>実験2では, 実験1に引き続き, 飽食区5頭, 標準区6頭, 制限区8頭について継続して初産から10産まで繁殖成績を調査した。体重120kg到達以後および各産次における受胎までの期間および妊娠期間中は畜試における慣行法に準じて標準区を設定し, 制限区はその70%, 飽食区は飽食とした。分娩後の授乳期間中の飼料給与量は3区とも同量とした。供試豚の繁殖性に関しては, 飽食区では途中で試験から除外されたものはなく, 5頭全部が10産まで分娩した。標準区では, 初産分娩時に1頭が難産で死亡し, 5産終了後に1頭が肢蹄障害のため起立不能となり, また6産終了後に1頭が長期間不受胎のためそれぞれ試験より除外された。制限区では, 2産妊娠時, 3産妊娠時, 4産妊娠時および5産妊娠時に, それぞれ2頭, 2頭, 1頭, 1頭が流産あるいは早産のため試験から除外され, また1頭が3産分娩後の発情再帰が長期間みられないため試験から除外され, 残る1頭も6産目の妊娠中に削痩が激しく試験から除外された。以上の結果から, 飼料給与の制限による痩せすぎは性成熟を遅延させること, さらにその後の繁殖性に対しても悪影響があることが示唆された。さらに飽食は繁殖性に悪影響を与えることはないことが示唆された。
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum feeding and restricted feeding on the reproductive performances in the gifts and the sows.<br>In experiment 1, thirty one F1 female pigs (twenty seven LH gifts from six different litters and four LW gifts from one litter) were randomly assigned to three groups; ad libitum feeding group (n=10), ordinary feeding group (n=10) and restricted feeding group (n=11). They were used from 4 months of age with about 50kg of body weight to the age of puberty. The developing gifts in ordinary feeding group were fed on the basis of the Japanese Feeding Standard for Swine until 120kg of body weight. Restricted feeding group was fed 70% of the feed of ordinary feeding group. Ad libitum feeding group was fed with ad libitum. Ages of puberty with 120kg of body weight and first estrus were 206.5±21.0, 223.2±16.5, 302.1±43.4 days and 248.3±18.8, 262.2±25.6, 297.1±37.7 days in ad libitum feeding group, ordinary feeding group, restricted feeding group, respectively. The differences between ad libitum feeding group, ordinary feeding group and restricted feeding group were statistically significant.<br>In experiment 2, five pigs in ad libitum feeding group, six pigs in ordinary feeding group and eight pigs in restricted feeding group were examined on the reproductive performances from first parity to tenth parity. Ordinary feeding group was fed 2.8kg/day of gestation mash (TDN 67.0%, DCP 9.5%) during the gestation period in each parity. Restricted feeding group was fed 70% of the feed of ordinary feeding group and ad libitum feeding group was fed with ad libitum. During the lactation period, all pigs were given 5.4kg/day of finishing mash (TDN 70.0%, DCP 12.5%). None of the sows in ad libitum feeding group were culled; all of them farrowed until tenth parity without any severe disorders. In ordinary feeding group, three sows were removed from the experiment; one died from a difficult delivery at the first parity and the others were culled because of a difficulty of standing after the fifth parity and a repeated anestrus after sixth parity, respectively. In restricted feeding group, the 6 sows that had abortion or premature delivery were culled; 2 sows in the second parity, 2 in the third parity, 1 in the fourth parity and 1 in the fifth parity. Also one sow in anestrus after weaning after third parity was culled and the other was removed in the halfway of sixth parity because of emaciation.<br>On the basis of the above results, it is suggested that the emaciation by restricted feeding postpone the attainment of puberty and affect the breeding longevity of sows. It is also suggested that ad libitum feeding does not affect the breeding longevity of sows.
- Nihon Yoton Gakkaishi
Nihon Yoton Gakkaishi 34(2), 32-40, 1997-06-30
The Japanese Society of Swine Science