パルマハム中に生成する赤色色素の特性  [in Japanese] Characteristics of a Red Pigment in Parma Ham  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

パルマハムは, イタリアの伝統的プロシュートハムの一つで, 豚の骨付き大腿肉を原料に海塩のみを用い長い熟成期間をかけて製品化され, 特有の美しい赤色を発現する。我々の研究において, この色素は, 発色剤を用いた一般の生ハム中の赤色色素ニトロソミオグロビン (NOMb) とは異なり, その生成に微生物が関与することを認め, 先に報告した。今回は, 既知の赤色ミオグロビン誘導体との比較を含め, パルマハム色素の特性について検討を行った。パルマハム試料の水抽出液を用い, 以下の項目について分光光学的解析を行い, 別途に調製した赤色Mb誘導体〔NOMbおよびオキシミオグロビン (O<sub>2</sub>Mb)〕と比較した。1) pHの影響: パルマハム試料の水抽出液をHClあるいはNaOHでpH3~10に調整。2) 温度と光照射の影響: 低温 (5℃) または室温 (20℃), ならびに蛍光灯照射 (2,500Lux) の組み合わせで1週間保持。3) 酸化剤の影響: 赤血塩 (0.5mM) を添加。4) 加熱の影響: 40~70℃で30分間保持。パルマハム色素抽出液のpH値の違い (pH3~10) による吸収スペクトル変化を調べた結果, 最大吸収はソーレー帯において423nm (pH5以上), 可視部で549および587nmの2ヵ所にみられた。pH6~10では吸収スペクトルに変化は観察されなかった。酸化型のミオグロビン (Mb) の吸収パターン (最大吸収波長505および630nm) は, どの調整pH値でも観察されなかった。抽出液の赤色は暗所に置くと5℃あるいは20℃で1週間保持しても安定で, その最大吸光度を維持した。赤血塩添加によって, NOMb およびO<sub>2</sub>Mbとも酸化され, その吸収スペクトルに変化を生じたが, パルマハム抽出液では変化は認められなかった。加熱によっても, その吸収パターンは他のMb誘導体と比較して安定であった。

The physicochemical properties of a red pigment in Parma ham were examined in this study and compared with those of other myoglobin (Mb) derivatives whose red color is due to oxymyoglobin (O<sub>2</sub>Mb) and nitrosylmyoglobin (NOMb). A water extract of Parma ham was prepared and the absorption spectra of the final filtrate were recorded at 350-650nm. The effects of pH on the absorption spectra were studied subsequent to the addition of NaOH or HCl to the water extract. A single absorption peak was noted at 423nm in the Soret's band and 2 peaks at visible wavelengths of 549 and 587nm. The absorption spectra of red pigment had no change at pH 6-10. At pH 5, the red pigment started to precipitate and increasingly more so as pH became more acidic. No typical absorption peaks for metmyoglobin (MetMb) could be seen at 505 and 630nm at any pH. The sterile water extract of Parma ham was kept in a sterilized test tube for 7 days at low (5°C) or room temperature (20°C) under conditions of light exposure or darkness. The red pigment of the water extract was stable in the dark at each temperature during 7 days of storage. To the water extract of Parma ham and each of the O<sub>2</sub>Mb and NOMb solutions, ferricyanide was added. O<sub>2</sub>Mb and NOMb were oxidized by ferrycianide to MetMb, but the spectrum of the water extract from Parma ham had no change. The water extract of Parma ham and the O<sub>2</sub>Mb and NOMb solutions were heated at 40-70°C for 30min followed by measurement of the absorption spectrum. The heated extract was filtered under sterile conditions. For the water extract, absorption of the spectral peaks decreased, though the spectrum of this pigment was maintained essentially during heating, in contrast to those of O<sub>2</sub>Mb and NOMb; precipitation of the pigment was noted with increasing temperature. The pigment precipitated with foreign proteins denatured by heating, but could be detected in its acetone extract.

Journal

  • Nihon Yoton Gakkaishi

    Nihon Yoton Gakkaishi 36(3), 124-129, 1999-09-30

    The Japanese Society of Swine Science

References:  11

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10008285365
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10202971
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    ART
  • ISSN
    0913882X
  • NDL Article ID
    4879046
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZR22(科学技術--農林水産--畜産)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-1082
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  J-STAGE  JASI 
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