Physical and Mathematical Modelling of Thermal Stratification Phenomena in Steel Ladles

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

    • PAN Yuhua
    • Division of Process Metallurgy, Department of Chemical and Metallurical Engineering, Lulea University of Technology
    • BJORKMAN Bo
    • Division of Process Metallurgy, Department of Chemical and Metallurical Engineering, Lulea University of Technology

Abstract

A 1/4-scale hot-water model of industrial 107-tonne steel ladles was established in the laboratory. With this physical model, thermal stratification phenomena due to natural convection in steel ladles during the holding period before casting were investigated. By controlling the cooling intensity of the water model to correspond to the heat loss rate of steel ladles, which is governed by dimensionless numbers Fr and βΔ<i>T</i>, temperature distributions in the water model can simulate those in the steel ladles. Consequently, the temperature profile in the hot-water bath in the model can be used to deduce the thermal stratification phenomena in liquid steel bath in the ladles. In addition, mathematical simulations on fluid flow and heat transfer both in the water model and in the prototype steel ladle were performed using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical method. The CFD model was validated against temperatures measured in the water model. Comparisons between mathematically simulated temperature profiles in the prototype steel ladle and those physically simulated by scaling-up the measured temperature profiles in the water model showed a good agreement. Therefore, it can be concluded that, as long as accurate heat loss information is known, it is feasible to use a 1/4-scale water model to non-isothermally simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in steel ladles during the holding period before casting.

Journal

  • ISIJ International

    ISIJ International 42(6), 614-623, 2002-06-15

    The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

References:  22

  • <no title>

    HLINKA J. W.

    Iron Steel Eng. 8, 123, 1970

    Cited by (3)

  • <no title>

    PETEGNIEF J.

    Rev. Metall. Cah. Inf. Tech. 47, 1989

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    WESTER J. A.

    Internal technical report, MF 2/68, 1968

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    JONSSON K. O.

    Ph. D. thesis in ferrous metallurgy, 1970

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    GRIP C. E.

    Steelmaking Conf. Proc. 77, 103, 1994

    Cited by (2)

  • <no title>

    ILEGBUSI O. J.

    Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn 27, 563, 1987

    Cited by (6)

  • <no title>

    KOO Y. S.

    Steelmaking Conf. Proc. 72, 415, 1989

    Cited by (3)

  • <no title>

    AUSTIN P. R.

    ISIJ Int. 32, 196, 1992

    Cited by (7)

  • <no title>

    CHAKRABORTY S.

    Metall. Trans. B 23, 135, 1992

    Cited by (6)

  • <no title>

    OLIKA B.

    Scand. J. Metall. 25, 18, 1996

    Cited by (3)

  • <no title>

    LOWRY M. L.

    ISS Transactions 14, 17, 1993

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    DE J. BARRETO S. J.

    ISIJ Int. 36, 543, 1996

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    DAMLE C.

    ISIJ Int. 36, 681, 1996

    Cited by (4)

  • <no title>

    WANG J.

    Acta Metall Sin. 33, 509, 1997

    Cited by (2)

  • <no title>

    SINHA K.

    Ironmaking Steelmaking 25, 387, 1998

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    SHENG D. Y.

    ISIJ Int. 38, 843, 1998

    Cited by (4)

  • <no title>

    PAN Yuhua

    ISIJ Int. 42, 53, 2002

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    BRADSHAW P.

    Turbulence 12, 244, 1976

    Cited by (1)

  • <no title>

    LAUNDER B. E.

    Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 3, 269, 1974

    Cited by (10)

  • <no title>

    Technical data book of Avesta Sheffield Group 8, 2000

    Cited by (2)

  • <no title>

    CHEN J.

    Handbook of Diagrams and Data for Steelmaking 391, 1984

    Cited by (2)

  • <no title>

    WEAST R. C.

    Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, F-5, 1977

    Cited by (2)

Codes

Page Top