高校生の就職における組織的求人システムについて : 女子就職者における西南九州と中京圏の結びつきから : [in Japanese] Methodical Recruiting Systems for High School Jobseekers in Japan : A Case of Connections between Southwest Kyushu and the Chukyo Metropolitan Area through Employing Female High School Graduates [in Japanese]
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人口移動は, 個人の自由意思のみによって発生するものではなく, 移動者を取り巻く様々な「制度」によっても大きな影響を受ける。本稿は, そうした問題意識の下, 高校生女子の就職における組織的求人システムの事例と, それによって発生する就職移動について考察したものである。中京圏における紡績工場労働者と看護助手の求人には, 働きながら学べる制度を設けて労働力を確保している。また比較的労働力の回転が早いため, 採用担当者の現地派遣や集団求人の実施などによって, 安定的かつ継続的な雇用確保を図っている。一方で, 西南九州縁辺部の高校では, 地元に求人が少なくまた進学率も低い。このような状況を背景として, 西南九州からはこれまでに多数の女子高卒者が, 両職種への就職のために中京圏に移動してきた。西南九州から三大都市圏への移動者全般については, 東京圏を指向する割合が最も大きいのに対して, 高卒女子の就職移動については中京圏を指向する割合が最も大きい。これは, 組織化された求人システムという「制度」が, マクロスケールにおける人口移動パターンに影響を与えている一つの事例と判断することができる。
Most migration studies have been done under the premise that individuals migrate of their own freewill. In recent years, however, some researchers insist that various “systems” promote or restrain the migration of jobseekers.<br>In this paper, we researched some cases in migration for the employment of female high school graduates where methodical recruiting systems have played a very important role and have caused massive migration as a result.<br>We examined two kinds of occupations, spinning mill workers and assistant nurses, in the Chukyo metropolitan area that includes Nagoya and Gifu. We found that female workers in these occupations quit after a relatively short term and that the employers wanted to continue to keep finding new workers in both occupations. They provide incentive systems where female workers can work and study at junior colleges and other educational institutions. In Southwest Kyushu, a peripheral region in Japan, we also found that there were not enough local jobs for female high school graduates seeking jobs and that the ratio of students going on to higher education was also low because their incomes were not as high there.<br>We discovered that because of the satisfaction of both interests, those in the Chukyo metropolitan area and those in Southwest Kyushu, many female high school graduates seeking work in Southwest Kyushu were employed in these two kinds of occupations in the Chukyo metropolitan area since the 1980s. Furthermore, the recruiting systems of these occupations in the Chukyo metropolitan area are highly methodical. The people in charge of employment for both occupations who conduct recruiting activities in Southwest Kyushu have also maintained strong personal relations with the guidance-counseling teachers at high schools in Southwest Kyushu. Therefore the number of migrants from Southwest Kyushu to the Chukyo metropolitan area for both occupations is maintained at a relatively high level, in contrast with the general trend of the number of migrants from all peripheral regions to the three largest metropolitan areas (Tokyo, Chukyo, and Hanshin metropolitan area), for the employment of female high school graduates.<br>We found that the ratio of migrants to the Chukyo metropolitan area was the highest among all migrants for the employment of female high school graduates from Southwest Kyushu in the three largest metropolitan areas, although the ratio of migrants to the Tokyo metropolitan area was generally the highest among all the migrants from Southwest Kyushu and the other peripheral regions to the three largest metropolitan areas in Japan. This phenomenon is one example in which the “systems” affected macroscopic migration patterns.
- Kikan Chirigaku
Kikan Chirigaku 54(2), 92-104, 2002-07-01
The Tohoku Geographical Association