Chemical Aspects Concerning the Friction and Abrasion of Rubber

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Abstract

The frictional force (<i>f</i><sub>F</sub>) is proportional to the normal force; for rubber it is corrected by a factor involving the pressure and elasticity due to a change of the contact surface. During friction induced by a slider, <i>f</i><sub>F</sub> fluctuates, which is conventionally explained by a stick-slip mechanics. However, the effect of the temperature and velocity on <i>f</i><sub>F</sub> as well as the frequencies of vibration and pattern abrasion producing worn products of various size, are not studied using mechanical model. <br>On the contrary, the author discusses here the chemical mechanism of stick-peeling based on a model involving pseudo crosslinks of multi-sizes. The frictional force (<i>f</i><sub>F</sub>) is taken to be equal to the peeling force (<i>f</i><sub>P</sub>), For adhesives, <i>f</i><sub>P</sub> is proportional to the adhesion force (<i>f</i><sub>A</sub>) affected by such rheological factors as the peeling velocity (<i>v</i>), the thickness (<i>h</i>), and the relaxation time (<i>τ</i>); <i>f</i><sub>P</sub> = <i>f</i><sub>A</sub>(<i>τvh</i>)<sup>0.5</sup>. Here, <i>f</i><sub>A</sub> is proportional to the fraction of the pseudo link (<i>ν</i>) and the wetting energy (<i>W</i>) divided by the peeling distance, which is almost equal to the bond length (<i>l</i>) and <i>f</i><sub>A</sub> is expressed as <i>f</i><sub>A</sub> = (<i>ν</i>/<i>N</i>)<sup>2/3</sup>(<i>W</i>/<i>l</i>). <i>ν</i> is the number of links formed on the surface of the rubber, and is varied with the sizes of the links 4 (link A) and 16 (link B) and their relaxation times of 10<sup>−3.4</sup> s (<i>τ</i><sub>A</sub>) and 10<sup>−1</sup> s (<i>τ</i><sub>B</sub>). <br>Also, for the frictional force (<i>f</i><sub>F</sub>) the same equation is obtained when <i>v</i> and <i>h</i> are taken to be the velocity of the slider and the thickness of the rubber layer deformed by the slider, respectively. Friction produces two kinds of vibrations by the dissociation of links A and B; their frequencies are given by the reciprocal of <i>τ</i><sub>A</sub> and <i>τ</i><sub>B</sub>, respectively. <br>Abrasion is caused by the scission of rubber chains connected with links A and B in the peeling process. The former abrasion yields powdery wear products by crazing, whereas in the latter the scission of chemical bonds of the energy (<i>D</i>) develops to give crest-shape tearing i.e. so-called pattern abrasion. The sizes of wear products are proportional to the relaxation distances corresponding to <i>τ</i><sub>A</sub> and <i>τ</i><sub>B</sub>. The resistance to abrasion of rubber is expressed by a ratio of the force at a break (<i>f</i><sub>B</sub>) to <i>f</i><sub>F</sub>, <i>f</i><sub>B</sub>/<i>f</i><sub>F</sub> = (<i>ν</i>/<i>N</i>)<sup>1/3</sup>(<i>D</i>/<i>Wl</i><sup>2</sup>)(<i>vτh</i>)<sup>−0.5</sup>. Carbon black improves the abrasion resistance due to its reinforcing ability, and the resistance is enhanced by increasing the content, specific surface area and adhesion ability of carbon black. Their optimum values were also estimated theoretically.

Journal

  • Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 69(10), 2999-3006, 1996-10-15

    The Chemical Society of Japan

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Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10008910180
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA00580132
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • Article Type
    ART
  • ISSN
    00092673
  • NDL Article ID
    4098837
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZP1(科学技術--化学・化学工業)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z53-B35
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  J-STAGE 
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