各種抗菌薬に対する臨床分離株の感受性サーベイランス : 2000年分離グラム陰性菌に対する抗菌力  [in Japanese] Surveillance of susceptibility of clinical isolates of various bacterial species to antibacterial agents : Antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria isolated in 2000  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

2000年に全国16施設において種々の臨床材料から分離されたグラム陰性菌19菌種属, 1,227株に対する各種抗菌薬のMICを寒天平板希釈法で測定し, 抗菌力の比較検討を行った。腸内細菌科の抗菌薬感受性は, ほとんどのβ-lactam系薬に対して, 過去のデータに比べ耐性化傾向は認めなかったが, ニューキノロン系薬 (NQs) に対する低感性株を含む耐性株の分離頻度は引き続き上昇していた。<I>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella</I> spp., <I>Proteus</I> spp.においては, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, aztreonamあるいはcefbodoximeに対する非感性菌は, それぞれ9.8%, 4.0%, 8.3%検出された。<I>Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Branhamella catarrhalis</I>に対し, 多くの抗菌薬は良好な抗菌力を有していたが, <I>N.gonorrhoeae</I>ではNQs低感性株を含む耐性株が92%にまで達し, きわめて高い分離頻度であった。<I>Haemophilus influenzae</I>におけるβ-lactamase産生株は7%であり, 1998年より減少したが, β-lactamase-negative ampicillin耐性株 (BLNAR) の分離頻度は1992年3.3%, 1994年3.5%, 1996年15.6%, 1998年24.4%, 2000年37.0%と大きく増加していた。<I>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</I>の各抗菌薬に対する感受性は上昇しており, tobramycin, doripenem, meropenem, arbekacinは, MIC<SUB>90</SUB>で6.25μg/mL以下を示した。抗緑膿菌薬11剤に対する感受性解析の結果, 多剤耐性化は進んでおらず, すべての抗菌薬に感性の株の分離頻度が上昇していた。<I>P. aeruginosa</I>以外のブドウ糖非醗酵グラム陰性菌においても, 測定抗菌薬の抗菌力は若干上昇していた。

We used MIC determinations by the agar-dilution method to assess the activity of various antibacterial agents against clinical isolates of 1, 227 strains of gram-negative aerobic bacteria (19 species) isolated at 16 facilities in Japan in 2000. There was no decrease in the antibacterial activity of most β-lactams against <I>Enterobacteriaceae</I> compared to our previous report on isolates in 1998, but the number of strains resistant to new quinolones (NQs) had increased. Strains that were not susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, aztreonam, or cefpodoxime accounted for 9.8% of the <I>Escherichia coli</I>, 4.0% of the <I>Klebsiella</I> spp., and 8.3% of the <I>Proteus</I> spp. Most of the agents displayed high antibacterial activity against<I> Neisseria gonorrhoeae</I> and <I>Branhamella catarrhalis</I>. However, the proportion of NQs-resistant <I>N. gonorrhoeae</I> strains was 92%, and was higher than in 1998.β-Lactamase was produced by 7% of the <I>Haemophilus influenzae</I> strains isolated, which was lower than in 1998. However, the proportion of β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant <I>H. influenzae</I> increased greatly, from 3.3% in 1992 and 3.5% in 1994, to 15.6% in 1996, 24.4% in 1998, and 37.0% in 2000. The agents that displayed comparatively high antibacterial activity against <I>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</I> were tobramycin, doripenem, meropenem, and arbekacin, all of which had an MIC<SUB>90</SUB> of ≤6.25μg/mL. The distribution of the activity of 11 antipseudomonal agents against <I>P. aeruginosa</I> indicated a decrease in number of multi-resistant strains and an increase in strains that exhibited susceptibility to all of the agents, compared with our previous reports in 1998. The activity of antibacterial agents against other glucose non-fermentative gram-negative rods, was slightly higher than in 1998.

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Chemotherapy

    Japanese Journal of Chemotherapy 51(4), 209-232, 2003-04-25

    Japanese Society of Chemotherapy

References:  21

Cited by:  43

Codes

Page Top