オクタヴィア・ヒルのオープン・スペース運動の発展への貢献 Octavia Hill's Contribution to the Growth of the "Open Space" Movement

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19世紀,大英帝国の首都ロンドンは拡大を続け,1851年に人口は236万人を超えた.中産階級は,次第に環境の良い郊外に移り住み,スラム化した都心部には労働者が多数残された.しかし大都市問題に関わる公的機関の介入は限られ,改良事業の多くが博愛主義者の慈善活動に依存していた.本稿では,1860年代以降,英国のオープン・スペース運動の発展に貢献した,社会改良家オクタヴィア・ヒルの環境への関心と行動の範囲・内容を明らかにする作業を通して,緑に囲まれた都市や国土の景観を保全する活動が,当時の人間のいかなる意識や理解に基づいて始まり,社会の批判や合意を得て進んでいったのかを検討する.ヒルのオープン・スペース運動は,都心部に小さな遊び場を造ること,身近な「使われない墓地」を開放することから始まり,コモンやフットパスの保護,英国南東部ウィールド丘陵の眺望点の保護,さらに湖水地方の景勝地の保護へと発展した.19世紀末にオープン・スペース運動は躍進期を迎え,ヒルは英国全体のオープン・スペースの保護を対象とし得るナショナルトラスの創設者の一人となった.ヒルの著した論文・書簡・報告文の内容から・オープン・スペース意識と行動とを検討し,オープン・スペース運動は博愛主義に基づく社会改良事業から始まった環境保護運動であり,「美の普及」に関わる芸術活動と関連していたこと,さらに彼女のオープン・スペース運動への貢献が,先行研究で示された本のより大きかったことを論じる.

Octavia Hill (1838-1912) was a prominent English social worker in the second half of the 19th century. Her work for the improvement of housing and housing management has been widely appreciated. However, although she was one of the founders of the National Trust, less attention has been given to her campaign for better urban and rural environments. She exerted a particularly strong influence through her campaign for the preservation of, and access to, open space in both cities and the countryside, thus influencing ideas and opinions that were to lead to the emergence of environmental planning.<br> This article examines the content and scope of Hill's contribution to the "open space" movement. It places her activities within the context of rapid urban change and growth in Victorian London, especially from 1865 onward. It also argues that her achievements were of greater importance than has previously been acknowledged by geographers.<br> Her interests in open space may be categorized, from her own writings, as four-fold: space "to live, " "for children, " "for fresh air, " and "for beauty." From small beginnings in Freshwater Place in crowded inner London where, in 1866 she cleared a playground for local children, her work developed to include the opening up for public use of disused burial grounds and private open spaces. As London spread outward into the countryside, she campaigned for the preservation of old common lands and other open spaces. Her work for the permanent opening of Parliament Hill Fields in north London provides an example.<br> Hill fought using great skill in writing, publicity, discussion, and negotiation to overcome problems created by the weakness of existing Acts of Parliament and complex local government arrangements ill-suited to managing the problems of rapid urban growth. Her work extended outward from London to include the areas of natural beauty in the Kentish Wealden area of southeast England and as far away as the beautiful Lake District of Cumbria. She was an early leader of excursions to the countryside, often with the tenants of the houses that she managed in crowded and smoke-ridden London.<br> With her sister Miranda, she established the Kyrle Society in 1875. Centers of beauty were established in industrial cities to teach the value of environmental and artistic qualities to interested men and women of the working classes. An Open Space Subcommittee was set up in 1879 and its work foreshadowed that of the National Trust, established in 1895.<br> Indications are given of the influence of Hill's work on John Ruskin, William Morris, and others. Her links with Raymond Unwin and the "Garden City" movement were also influential. Although neither an architect nor an urban planner, Hill's zeal in advocating the importance of environmental quality and access to open space was especially noteworthy in changing opinions about the need for urban and environmental planning in Great Britain at a formative time in the development of town and country planning concepts. Her leadership in these respects has gone largely unrecognized by geographers.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論

    地理学評論 76(14), 1001-1024, 2003-12-01

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10013252273
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11591990
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    REV
  • ISSN
    13479555
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    6773235
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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