地図と空間認知をめぐる理論的・応用的諸問題 Theoretical and practical issues of the relationship between spatial cognition and maps

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Maps not only provide a conceptual model of the human spatial cognition but also act as a source of information for spatial knowledge. In addition, spatial cognition research provides cartography with a lot of findings useful for solving the problems of cartographic design and map use. The aim of this paper is to examine theoretical and practical issues on the relationship between maps and spatial cognition.As the spatial cognition research directed its attention to the "cognitive map", a great deal of effort has been made to inquire into the nature of spatial cognition by comparing to actual maps.Nevertheless such a naive analogical thinking has been criticized recently; instead comparison of spatial cognition to GIS is now emphasized because the properties of the cognitive map proved to be similar to digital maps.Concerning the role of maps as a source of information for spatial knowledge, numerous studies have been done on the distinction between indirect contact (e.g., map reading) and direct contact (e.g., travel behavior) with the environment.These studies revealed distinctive properties of spatial knowledge acquired from maps: e.g., systematic distortions, and directional bias.Children's mapping abilities are also one of the important issues of spatial cognition research, in which long-standing controversy among nativists and constructivists (or Piagetian) has been made.Recently, researchers have directed attention to an alternative theory based on the development model of Vygotsky who emphasized cultural difference.In addition, a variety of work is carried out in comparison of the process of map reading between groups or individuals: expert/novice, male/female, and people with different culturalbackgrounds.Since the late 1970's, cartographers have shifted their attention to cognitive map-design research applying cognitive theories and methods to the improvement of maps. While most of the earliest research employed psychophysical approach, recent work is entirely based on the theories and methods of cognitive science dealing with higherlevel cognitive process.Recent development of GIS, however, is altering the form and function of maps and changing the mode of cartographic communication. For instance, digital maps inherently have high interactivity such that their elements or scales can be easily customized according to users' demands.Such an interactive nature of digital maps blurs the distinction between makers and users of maps.Hence, user-oriented cartographic studies will be more required. In addition, it is necessary to reevaluate the relation between maps and spatial cognition with considering the nature of digital maps. Once "ubiquitous mapping" is advanced by the dissemination of digital maps, situations of map-use should also become diversified. Therefore, more effort must be made to investigate the process of cartographic communication in the context of map-use.

収録刊行物

  • 地図

    地図 41(4), 3-16, 2003-12-28

    日本国際地図学会

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10013682173
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00142024
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    00094897
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    6925495
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z15-217
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  IR  J-STAGE 
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