Size Distribution and Characteristics of Chemical Components in Ambient Particulate Matter

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Ambient particulate matter and gas in Kyoto were investigated by gravimetric analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and ion chromatography in order to clarify their behavior and origin. The size distribution and characteristics of the chemical components in ambient particulates collected on PTFE membrane filters using an Andersen air sampler were examined from August 2001 to April 2004. A four-stage filter pack method was used to sample the atmosphere for the determination of gas (SO<sub>2</sub>, HNO<sub>3</sub>, HCl, NH<sub>3</sub>) and particulate matter (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>) concentrations from October 2002 to April 2004. The concentration of SPM mass was in the range of 6.7 - 80.2 µg/m<sup>3</sup>. The size distributions of SPM mass were bimodal, peaking at around 0.65 - 1.1 and 3.3 - 4.7 µm, and 40 - 85% of SPM mass was fine particles (< 2.1 µm). Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cl, and Fe were mainly present in coarse particles (2.1 to 11.0 µm), while S was present in fine particles. The concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Mg, and Fe in fine particles increased from March to April in 2002, and those in coarse particulates increased in November 2002 and from March to April in 2004. This may be the effect of the continental yellow sand “Kosa.” The differences in the size distributions of Al, Si, Ca, Mg, and Fe in particles may depend on differences in their place of occurrence and course of transport from China to Japan. The concentration of HCl gas was higher than that of particulate chloride ion in summer. Nitric acid gas existed at higher concentrations in summer, but fine particulate nitrate ion was observed in winter. The gaseous-to-fine aerosol nitrate fraction became higher at warmer temperatures. Coarse sulfate was below 10%, and SO<sub>2</sub> gas and fine particulate sulfate were above 90%.


  • Analytical Sciences

    Analytical Sciences 21(2), 89-94, 2005-02-10

    The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

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