特別養護老人ホーム入居者の口腔内実態調査  [in Japanese] The Survey of Oral Health Conditions of Residents Living in a Special Nursing Home for the Elderly  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

要介護高齢者のQOLの改善には, 口腔内ケアーも重要と思われる.そのためには, 要介護高齢者の口腔の実態を把握することが必要である.そこで我々は, 1998年に東京都大田区に開設された特別養護老人ホーム入居者の口腔内実態調査を行うとともに, 入居者について施設看護婦から聞き取り調査を行った.施設入居者は男性9名, 女性67名の計76名であった.大部分の入居者は循環器障害, 脳血管障害あるいはアルツハイマー病や痴呆などの脳神経系に障害を持っていた.無歯顎者は26名で, 有歯顎者は50名であった.有歯顎者の口腔清掃は不良で, すべての人が齲蝕あるいは歯周疾患に罹患していた.主な口腔粘膜疾患は舌粘膜の萎縮で, 口腔カンジダ症も数名にみられた.さらに, 口腔ディスキネジアや顎関節の雑音もみられた.60-64歳の平均残存歯数は18.5本で, この歯数は加齢とともに減少した.残存歯数と口腔ディスキネジアの関連を検討すると, 口腔ディスキネジアを有する人に残存歯数が少ない傾向がみられた.以上の結果から, 要介護高齢者は多くの重篤な基礎疾患を有するだけでなく, 各種の口腔病変を持つことが示された.このことから, 要介護高齢者に対する口腔ケアーの重要性が示唆された.

Oral health care is significant to improving QOL (quality of life) of handicapped elderlies. Therefore it is necessary to know the oral conditions of these elderlies. This survey was performed by interviews to nurses and by oral examinations of 76 residents living in a special nursing home for the elderly opened at Ohta-ku Tokyo in April 1998.<BR>The subjects were 9 males and 67 females. The mean ages were 75.8 for males and 81.7 for females. Most had serious illnesses, including blood circulation disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cranial nerve disease such as Alzheimer's and dementia. The numbers of edenturous persons were 26 and dentate individuals were 50. The oral hygiene of dentate persons was poor, and residual teeth suffered from dental caries or periodontal diseases. The chief oral mucous disease was atrophy of the tongue, and candidiasis was seen in a few persons. There were oral diskinesia and sounds of temporomandibular joints. The average number of residual teeth was 18.5 at the ages of 60 to 64 and decreased with aging. Comparing the relationship between oral diskinesia and the number of residual teeth, the number of teeth showed a tendency to be fewer in subjects with oral diskinesia.<BR>These results indicate that elderlies in a special nursing home suffer from various kinds of oral diseases and systemic diseases and need oral health care.

Journal

  • The Journal of Showa University Dental Society

    The Journal of Showa University Dental Society 20(1), 112-116, 2000-03-31

    Showa University Dental Society

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