輸入落花生におけるアフラトキシンBG群汚染とその原因菌類としての Aspergillus section Flavi について  [in Japanese] Aflatoxin B and G contamination in imported peanuts and Aspergillus section Flavi of the causing fungi  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

わが国に輸入される生落花生のうち,主要輸入国の試料について,年間,約2,300-3,000 検体について2002 年から2006 年までのアフラトキシン(AF)検査の結果をとりまとめた.5年間の調査期間において,中国,南アフリカ,米国およびパラグアイ産の落花生についてAFB<sub>1</sub>,B<sub>2</sub> が検出されるものとAFB<sub>1</sub>,B<sub>2</sub>,G<sub>1</sub>,G<sub>2</sub> が検出されるものと比較するとともに,わが国のAFB<sub>1</sub> 単独10 μg/kg 規制した場合と,国際的に採用されているB 群,G 群AF を総量15 μg/kg で規制した場合を想定して検査試料数に対する規制値を超える試料の比率を集計した.結果として,試料数の多かった中国産落花生ではAFB<sub>1</sub> 単独規制では0.4-0.8 %が規制値を超え,AFBG 総量規制では0.4-1.1 %が規制値を超えていて,ほとんど同様であった.南アフリカ産落花生でも同様で,AFB<sub>1</sub> 単独規制では0.3-1.0 %,AFBG 総量規制で0.3-1.2 %が規制値を超えていた.輸入落花生由来菌につき,AF汚染の原因となる<i>Aspergillus</i> section <i>Flavi</i> に所属する菌について形態的,AF およびシクロピアゾン酸の産生性,heteroduplex panel analysis(HPA)による識別を検討したところ,中国産AFBG 検出試料の汚染原因は<i>A. parasiticus</i> であったのに対し,南アフリカ産AFBG 検出試料から分離した菌株には<i>A. prasiticus</i> のほかに小型の菌核を多数形成し,AFBG 群を産生する非典型的な<i>A. flavus</i> が存在した.この菌種はsection <i>Flavi</i> に関するHPA においてAfF4 に属する菌株であった.

We have summarized the results of the examinations for aflatoxins (AFs) conducted from 2002 to 2006 in approximately 2,300 to 3,000 annual samples of raw peanuts imported to Japan from major exporting countries. In peanuts from China, South Africa, the U.S. and Paraguay, a comparison was made between the proportion of products in which AFB<sub>1</sub> and/or B<sub>2</sub> was detected and that of products in which AFB<sub>1</sub>, B<sub>2</sub>, G<sub>1</sub> and/or G<sub>2</sub> was detected during the five years of survey. We also calculated the proportions of samples showing AF levels above the Japanese regulatory value (10 ppb for AFB<sub>1</sub> only) and those showing levels above the international limit (a total of 15 μg/kg [ppb] for B- and G-group AFs) to all samples examined during the same survey period. The results showed that, in the Chinese peanuts which had large sample sizes, the proportion of products having AFB<sub>1</sub> levels above the AFB<sub>1</sub>-focused regulatory value (0.4 % to 0.8 %) and that of products having AF levels above the limit of total B- and G-group AFs (0.4 % to 1.1 %) were very similar. Similarly, in South African peanuts, 0.3 % to 1.0 % and 0.3 to 1.2 % of the products showed AF levels above the AFB<sub>1</sub>-focused limit and the AF B- and G-group total limit, respectively. Isolates of <i>Aspergillus</i> section <i>Flavi</i> (the cause of AF contamination) from peanuts were identified for morphology and AF and cyclopiazonic acid productivity, and by heteroduplex panel analysis (HPA). It was found that the contamination of Chinese samples by B- and G-group AFs was caused mainly by <i>A. parasiticus</i>, whereas isolates from South African samples contaminated by B- and G-group AFs included, in addition to <i>A. parasiticus</i>, an atypical <i>A. flavus</i> isolate which forms numerous small sclerotia and produces B- and G-group AFs. This isolate was categorized into AfF4 by HPA of section <i>Flavi</i>.

Journal

  • JSM Mycotoxins

    JSM Mycotoxins 58(2), 107-114, 2008-07-31

    Japanese Society of Mycotoxicology

References:  17

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10021920513
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00334513
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    02851466
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  J-STAGE  JASI 
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