ダム構造物が水辺林の更新動態に与える影響 Influences of dam structure on dynamics of riparian forests




    • 中村 太士 NAKAMURA Futoshi
    • 北海道大学大学院農学研究科森林管理保全学講座 Department of Forest Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University



Riparian forests play an important role in a river ecosystem. Dams for water regulation and erosion control substantially alter the regeneration habitats of riparian species, thereby affect their recruitment, composition and growth rate. This paper reviewed the effects of dams on riparian forest dynamics. The effects of dams can be seen in the regulation of water discharge, sediment transport and frequency of flood disturbances. For example, spring floods in snowy regions mobilize riverbed sediment and create the moist, alluvial substrate ideal for seed germination. These are essential habitats for the recruitment of Populus and Salix spp. In contrast, dams attenuate spring flooding and/or stabilize summer flows. This flow regime limits the development of sand bars and may induce drought stress for seedlings and old trees. The recent degradation of riverbeds, widely observed in Japan, is due to gravel mining, and sediment entrapment by reservoirs and erosion control dams. This situation provides stable habitats for riparian forests, resulting in expansion of woodlands. However, decreased flood frequency and magnitude along the downstream reach of dams may reduce densities of pioneer species and shift species distribution from pioneer to late successional trees. Seed dispersal by water which is especially important for maintaining species diversity in wetland forests may be affected by dam construction. The methodologies applied to previous studies on dam effects are based upon a paired-reach comparison (up- and downstream) and/or comparison among rivers with and without dams. Some studies only examine differences in species composition, but others analyze species distribution and population densities with hydrologic, geomorphic parameters. Pre- and post-regulation effects were examined by dendrochronological analysis of core samples taken from matured trees and interpretation of a series of air-photos. Simulations were also conducted based upon niche differentiation and forest succession models. In order to mitigate the effects of dams, I suggest that an adaptive management strategy, such as initiation of artificial floods, is required.


  • 応用生態工学 = Ecology and civil engineering

    応用生態工学 = Ecology and civil engineering 2(2), 125-139, 1999-11-19

    Ecology and Civil Engineering Society

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