膜濾過における膜細孔閉塞のモデル化と評価  [in Japanese] Modeling and Evaluation of Pore Clogging of Membrane in Membrane Filtration  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 入谷 英司 IRITANI Eiji
    • 名古屋大学大学院工学研究科 化学・生物工学専攻 Department of Chemical Engineering, Nagoya University

Abstract

用水や廃水処理に膜濾過を適用する際の最大の問題点は膜細孔の閉塞やケーク形成による膜ファウリングである.本稿では,精密濾過や限外濾過などのコロイド溶液を対象とした膜濾過における膜細孔の閉塞に特に焦点を絞り,膜ファウリングを支配する基本的なメカニズムを概説する.Kozeny–Carman式に立脚し,深層濾過の進行とともに膜の空隙率と比表面積が変化すると考えることにより,膜細孔の閉塞の解析に最も広く用いられている閉塞濾過法則の一般化特性式が理論的に導かれた.最近では,膜細孔の閉塞と濾過ケークの成長が連続して,または同時に生じる複雑な濾過挙動を記述するいくつかの新しい複合モデルが報告されている.特に,水処理における効率的な膜濾過技術を確立するために,単なる物理逆洗や他の周期ダイナミック操作では充分に回復しない膜細孔の非可逆的な閉塞挙動の適切なモデル化が,将来重要となることが予測される.

One of the critical issues limiting the successful application of membrane filtration for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is typically membrane fouling of contaminants caused by pore clogging of the membrane and cake layer formation on the membrane surface during filtration. The overall objective of this paper is to systematically provide a fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing membrane fouling during membrane filtration, with particular emphasis on the pore clogging of the membrane in colloidal filtration such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration. A generalized characteristic form of four classical blocking filtration laws, which had been most extensively used in the analysis of the pore clogging of the membrane, was theoretically derived. The model accounts for the variations of both the porosity and specific surface area of the interior of membrane associated with the progress of deep bed filtration, on the basis of the Kozeny–Carman equation. Several new combined models have recently been developed to describe complicated filtration behaviors in which pore clogging of the membrane and growth of the filter cake occur in series or in parallel. In the future, the development of a more accurate model to explain the behavior of the irreversible pore clogging of the membrane, which will not fully recover by the simple physical backwashing and other periodic dynamic operations, will become increasingly important, in order to establish efficient membrane-based water treatment technologies.

Journal

  • KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU

    KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU 35(1), 1-11, 2009-03-20

    The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan

References:  51

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10025306772
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00037234
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    REV
  • ISSN
    0386216X
  • NDL Article ID
    10239671
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZP5(科学技術--化学・化学工業--化学工学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z17-725
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  J-STAGE 
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