エスニック都市空間における場所をめぐる葛藤 : サンフランシスコ・ジャパンタウンの一事例から  [in Japanese] The Struggle over Place in an Ethnic Urban Space : An Example from San Francisco's Japantown  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 小田 隆史 ODA Takashi
    • 東北大学大学院環境科学研究科・院 Graduate Student, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University

Abstract

本論文は,サンフランシスコ・ジャパンタウン(日本町)における一施設「ジャパンタウンボウル」の売却問題(2000年)及びその跡地に建った住・商混合施設「1600ウェブスター」への大手コーヒーショップ・チェイン「スターバックス」店舗進出問題(2005年)の経緯とそこにおける諸活動主体(アクター)間の対立を分析・検討し,それを通じてエスニック都市空間における場所をめぐる葛藤の性質・構造とその意味を考察したものである。このサンフランシスコ日本町における一連の場所をめぐる葛藤の過程のなかで最も強い対立を示したアクター関係は,日本町に進出を企てる外部資本と日本町諸組織との間であり,それは地価にふさわしい経済的開発と地域経済再編を志向する資本主義的都市過程とローカル・エスニック・コミュニティの維持・保全を志向するエスニックに意味付けられた特殊な都市過程との対立として捉えられる。そしてその意味を地理学的に考察するとき,上記の対抗関係はMerrifield (1993) が提示した資本による「想像された空間(conceived space)」とコミュニティの現実の「生きられた場所(lived place)」との対抗関係であり,それらの間の弁証法的調整の過程であると言うことができる。

This study examines the characteristics and meaning of struggles over place in San Francisco's Japantown, one of the ethnic urban spaces for Japanese American community in the United States. It describes processes of and conflicts among a variety of urban actors over a real-estate property sale and attempted contracting with a major coffeehouse chain to become a tenant in a newly developed mixed housing-retail property in the sold location.<br>After the end of battles against postwar redevelopment and evictions, major development and construction projects in San Francisco's Japantown were completed by the 1990s. However, the community came to face yet another change and struggle in 2000 when Kintetsu Enterprises Company of America—a US-based Japanese corporation—announced its sale of ‘Japantown Bowl,’ a bowling facility that had attracted Japanese Americans and larger San Franciscans for many years as their social gathering venue. Soon after the announcement, a political campaign against the sale began to grow. Aiming to maintain the bowling alley operation, Japanese Cultural and Community Center of Northern California (JCCCNC)—one of major nonprofit community organizations in Japantown−proposed a property purchase plan, while Japanese American residents, bowling fans, and leaders of Japantown community organizations took political actions to encourage the mayor and city supervisors to act on this matter. Despite the series of political actions and protests, the Japantown Bowl was closed on September 20, 2000 and was sold to a non-Japanese developer, Anasazi Properties. The former bowling alley building was demolished, and a new five-story housing complex was built with retail spaces in the first floor and condominium units on the second floor and above in 2004, the majority of which sold at the market rate.<br>In early 2005, Japantown community members came to know that Starbucks coffeehouse—a chain of the largest global coffee company—and United Parcel Service (UPS) store had requested and they had been approved to become tenants of its ground floor retail spaces by San Francisco Redevelopment Agency. Though no serious concern was expressed regarding the UPS store's tenancy, some of the Japantown community members strongly opposed a Starbucks in Japantown as they believed it would negatively impact the existing family-owned Japanese American teahouse businesses. The Japantown business community including the members of the merchants association were among those who expressed the strong disagreement to the plan, and they encouraged city officials and board of supervisors to take this issue into serious considerations. On May 17, 2005, many of the opposing members testified at the public hearing of Redevelopment Agency Commission. In June 2005, responding to the opposition campaign, Starbucks Coffee Company voluntarily withdrew its decision to occupy the property, which put an end to the community's struggle over a particular ethnic urban place.<br>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

Journal

  • Kikan Chirigaku

    Kikan Chirigaku 61(3), 157-177, 2009-09-15

    The Tohoku Geographical Association

References:  27

Cited by:  3

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10025405978
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10379267
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    09167889
  • NDL Article ID
    10438844
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG7(歴史・地理--日本--地方史・誌)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-383
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  J-STAGE 
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