気候変動と文明の盛衰 Climate Variations and Changes in World History

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The results of hydro-environment researches into marine and lacustrine sediments revealed climatic variations which seem to have some relationships between turns in world history and climatic changes. In the Japan Sea and northeast Pacific off Kashima from the Late Glacial to the Holocene, diatom temperature, <I>Td</I>' = (frequency of warm-water species) - (frequency of warm-and cold-water species) <SUP>-1</SUP>?100, values show rhythmic fluctuations with durations of 1 kyr and 400-500 yrs (Koizumi et al., 2004, 2006). This indicates a strong and regular inflow of the warm Tsushima Current into the Japan Sea as a branch of the warm Kuroshio Current. The decreases of <I>Td</I>' values correspond to a period of climatic deterioration under which cultural changes occurred in Japan. The paleoclimatic variations and the triple events of high <SUP>14</SUP>C in the atmospheric residual <SUP>14</SUP>C record denoted by Stuiver <I>et al</I>. (1991) are recognized in the diatom variations.<BR>A similar periodicity is also recognized in North Atlantic drift ice (Bond <I>et al</I>., 2001), concentrations of sea salt and terrestrial dust in the GISP2 ice core (O'Brien <I>et al</I>., 1995), in lake deposits from the Jura in France (Magny, 1995), Tibet (Gasse et al., 1991; Ji <I>et al</I>., 2005), and Alaska (Hu <I>et al</I>., 2003), and oxygen isotope variations from stalagmites in southern China (Wang <I>et al</I>., 2005) and Oman (Neff <I>et al</I>., 2001).<BR>Climatic deteriorations are synchronous with periods when serious changes occurred in human intellectual achievements during the Holocene. The Agricultural Revolution (11, 000-10, 000yr BC), with the cultivation of wild plants and domestication of wild animals to produce and secure food, seems to coincide with the Younger Dryas event. Increased agricultural production made it possible to afford a population not engaged in agriculture, for example, people engaged in handicrafts, festivals, and politics. This seems to occur in the period coinciding with T<SUB>2</SUB> event in the T<SUB>1</SUB>-T<SUB>4</SUB> triplets, which have Maunder-and Sporer-type patterns occurring in sets of three, denoted by Stuiver and Braziunas (1993). The religious courtesy belief in the recycling and the reinforcing of life was converted into a rational and systematic consideration of life based on universal theory. This conversion of thinking seems to coincide with the T<SUB>3</SUB> event. Modern science was established in Europe in the 17th century. And now human beings are destroying natural environments using highly developed scientific technologies of their own. This is a negative revolution that human beings have never previously experienced.<BR>In the south-to-north transect of the cores from both the Pacific and Japan Sea sides of Honshu, <I>Td</I>' values indicate that the Kuroshio Current and Tsushima Warm Current are both weakening at present. The present interglacial period might end and become a cooler climatic condition like a Little Ice Age within 300 years. The insolation at 37°N among the Earth's orbital parameters is weak at present (Koizumi and Ikeda, 1997). However, the mean global temperature has risen about 0.5°C during the last century. Warming of the Earth, which is caused mainly by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, has made natural environments unstable.

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  • 地學雜誌

    地學雜誌 116(1), 62-78, 2007-02-25

    公益社団法人 東京地学協会

参考文献:  69件中 1-69件 を表示

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10025675709
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00322536
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    REV
  • ISSN
    0022135X
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    8860929
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZM41(科学技術--地球科学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z15-169
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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