Lithium and Neuropsychiatric Therapeutics : Neuroplasticity via Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β, β-Catenin, and Neurotrophin Cascades

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Abstract

Mood disorders are not merely attributed to the functional defect of neurotransmission, but also are due to the structural impairment of neuroplasticity. Chronic stress decreases neurotrophin levels, precipitating or exacerbating depression; conversely, antidepressants increase expression of various neurotrophins (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor), thereby blocking or reversing structural and functional pathologies via promoting neurogenesis. Since the worldwide approval of lithium therapy in 1970, lithium has been used for its anti-manic, antidepressant, and anti-suicidal effects, yet the therapeutic mechanisms at the cellular level remain not-fully defined. During the last five years, multiple lines of evidence have shown that the mood stabilization and neurogenesis by lithium are due to the lithium-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), allowing accumulation of β-catenin and β-catenin–dependent gene transcriptional events. Altered levels of GSK-3β and β-catenin are associated with various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, while various classical neuropsychiatric drugs inhibit GSK-3β and up-regulate β-catenin expression. In addition, evidence has emerged that insulin-like growth factor-I enhances antidepression, anti-anxiety, memory, neurogenesis, and angiogenesis; antidepressants up-regulate expression of insulin-like growth factor-I, while insulin-like growth factor-I up-regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and its receptor TrkB level, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced synaptic protein levels. More importantly, physical exercise and healthy diet raise transport of peripheral circulating insulin-like growth factor I into the brain, reinforcing the expression of neurotrophins (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and the strength of cell survival signalings (e.g., phosphoinositide 3-kinase / Akt / GSK-3β pathway). This review will focus on the rapidly advancing new trends in the last five years about lithium, GSK-3β/β-catenin, and neurotrophin cascades.<br>

Journal

  • Journal of Pharmacological Sciences

    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 110(1), 14-28, 2009-05-20

    The Japanese Pharmacological Society

References:  108

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Cited by:  2

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10025736349
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11806667
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    13478613
  • NDL Article ID
    10225585
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZS51(科学技術--薬学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z53-D199
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  J-STAGE 
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