小規模事業場において良好実践を行っている事業者の産業保健ニーズに関する質的調査  [in Japanese] Qualitative Evaluation of Employer Requirements Associated with Occupational Health and Safety as Good Practice in Small-Scale Enterprises  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<b>小規模事業場において良好実践を行っている事業者の産業保健ニーズに関する質的調査:黒木直美ほか.産業医科大学医学部公衆衛生学</b>―本研究では,小規模事業場における事業者の産業保健ニーズあるいは良好実践の動機を把握することを目的とした.これまでの調査では小規模事業場における産業保健活動の遅れが報告されている.これらの知見は主に質問紙調査から得られたものである.しかし,小規模事業場には事業者の意識が直接反映されるという特徴があり,積極的に産業保健活動に取り組んでいる事業場も存在している.このような小規模事業場の良好実践例において,事業者のニーズを分析した研究はこれまでにない.産業保健に対する事業者の動機を明らかにすることは小規模事業場間に良好実践を水平展開する一助となると考えられる.そこで,我々は産業保健活動の良好実践が行われている小規模事業場10社の事業者と半構造化面接を行い,その逐語録をKJ法を用いた質的手法で分析した.その結果,事業者はもっぱら「よい会社」,「よい経営」を強く意識していることが明らかになった.「よい経営」のための要素には「人材確保」,「取引先の信用」,「社会的信用」,「社長自身の健康」という4つがあった.事業者はこれらの要素を達成するため職場の安全,従業員の健康に関する活動は当たり前であると考えていた.さらに,具体的な活動には「コストの問題」,「担当者の問題」,「時間がない」,「外部資源」という既知の制約があった.調査結果から,経営と安全衛生活動を関連づけることが小規模事業場における安全衛生活動の向上に寄与すると考えられた.<br> (産衛誌2009; 51: 49-59)<br>

The purpose of this study was to identify what motivates employers to promote good occupational health and safety practices in small-scale enterprises. Previous studies have shown that small-scale enterprises generally pay insufficient attention to issues of occupational health and safety. These findings were mainly derived from questionnaire based surveys. Nevertheless, some small-scale enterprises in which employers exercise good leadership do take a progressive approach to occupational health and safety. Although good practices can be identified in small-scale enterprises, it remains unclear what motivates employers in small-scale enterprises to actively implement occupational health and safety practices. We speculated that identifying employer motivations in promoting occupational health would help to spread good practices among small-scale enterprises. Using a qualitative approach based on the KJ methods, we interviewed ten employers who actively promote occupational health and safety in the workplace. The employers were asked to discuss their views of occupational health and safety in their own words. A semi-structured interview format was used, and transcripts were made of the interviews. Each transcript was independently coded by two or more researchers. These transcripts and codes were integrated and then the research group members discussed the heading titles and structural relationships between them according to the KJ method. Qualitative analysis revealed that all the employers expressed a strong interest in a "good company" and "good management". They emphasized four elements of "good management", namely "securing human resources", "trust of business partners", "social responsibility" and "employer's health condition itself", and considered that addressing occupational health and safety was essential to the achievement of these four elements. Consistent with previous findings, the results showed that implementation of occupational health and safety activities depended on "cost", "human resources", "time to perform", and "advisory organization". These results suggest that employer awareness of the relationship between good management and occupational health is essential to the implementation of occupational health and safety practices in small-scale enterprises.<br> (San Ei Shi 2009; 51: 49-59)<br>

Journal

  • SANGYO EISEIGAKU ZASSHI

    SANGYO EISEIGAKU ZASSHI 51(5), 49-59, 2009-09-20

    Japan Society for Occupational Health

References:  28

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10025985545
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10467364
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    ART
  • ISSN
    13410725
  • NDL Article ID
    10460097
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZS17(科学技術--医学--衛生学・公衆衛生)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-308
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  J-STAGE 
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