Potential of Periodontal Ligament Cells to Regenerate Alveolar Bone

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Author(s)

    • HIRAGA Toru
    • Department of Oral Histology, Matsumoto Dental University
    • YOSHIBA Kunihiko
    • Division of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Department of Oral Health Science, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
    • YOSHIBA Nagako
    • Division of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Department of Oral Health Science, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
    • KASAHARA Etsuo
    • Department of Endodontics and Operative Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University

Abstract

Regeneration of periodontal tissues, lost as a result of periodontal disease, is a key objective of periodontal treatment. Although several periodontal regeneration therapies have been devised, the origin of the undifferentiated cells that regenerate periodontal tissues remains unknown. Therefore, in the present study, to clarify the existence of osteoblast progenitor cells in the periodontal ligament, as well as to investigate the mechanism of alveolar bone regeneration without any effects from the original bone, we evaluated osteoblast differentiation induced by transplantation of GFP-transgenic rat molars into the subcutaneous tissues of wild-type rats. Ten days after transplantation, initial alveolar bone was formed apart from the cementum in the bifurcation region. After 20 days, this bone tissue had expanded to almost all of the bifurcation. GFP localization showed that the osteoblasts were derived from the transplant. Alpha-SMA- and BMP4-positive cells were observed near the root surface at 5 days after transplantation. With the progress of alveolar bone regeneration, osteoblasts expressing Runx2 and Osterix appeared in the bone-forming region. These results indicate that periodontal ligament tissue remaining on the root surface after a tooth extraction contains undifferentiated cells that have the ability to regenerate alveolar bone. The process of osteoblast differentiation in this model might be similar to that for normal alveolar bone formation. Thus, periodontal ligament cells might be useful for the regeneration of alveolar bone in tissue engineering applications.

Journal

  • Journal of Oral Biosciences

    Journal of Oral Biosciences 52(2), 72-80, 2010-05-20

    Japanese Association for Oral Biology

References:  47

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