就労女性の妊娠判明後の退職行動規定要因に関する疫学研究 Epidemiological Study of Factors Associated with Quitting a Job among Pregnant Working Women

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著者

    • 大原 賢了 OHARA Kenryo
    • 奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学講座 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine
    • 佐伯 圭吾 SAEKI Keigo
    • 奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学講座 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine
    • 岡本 希 OKAMOTO Nozomi
    • 奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学講座 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine
    • 冨岡 公子 TOMIOKA Kimiko
    • 奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学講座 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine
    • 西岡 久之 NISHIOKA Hisayuki
    • 奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学講座 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine
    • 車谷 典男 KURUMATANI Norio
    • 奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学講座 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine

抄録

<b>就労女性の妊娠判明後の退職行動規定要因に関する疫学研究:大原賢了ほか.奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学講座―目的:</b>女性の社会進出が進む中,就労女性の妊娠判明後の退職割合が,日本は他の先進国より未だ高いことを踏まえ,退職割合減少のため介入すべき要因を明らかにする.<b>対象と方法:</b>2004年11月から12月に,奈良県内の7産科医療機関を健診や出産目的で受診入院した全妊産婦にアンケート調査を実施し,この内,妊娠判明時に就労中であった603人を研究対象とした.退職をイベントの発生,調査時に就労中の者を打ち切り例(censored case)として,妊娠経過に伴う退職割合の推移をKaplan-Meier法により求めた.また,対象者の年齢や就労先の従業員規模や雇用形態のほか,職場の母性保護制度の有無などの職場要因,本人や夫の就業継続に関する考え方などの個人要因と,退職との関係について,Coxの比例ハザードモデルを用いて検討を行った.<b>結果:</b>出産までの退職割合は63.1%であり,第1子妊娠に限ると69.8%であった.妊娠経過の健康診査などを受けるための時間保障の制度がある(HR=0.59, 95%CI(0.41–0.83)),育児休業制度がある(0.37(0.22–0.63)),産休・育休からの復職後の支援体制が比較的整っている職場である(0.60(0.42–0.87)),結婚や子供の誕生があると勤めにくい雰囲気のある職場でない(0.59(0.43–0.81)),子どもができても,ずっと仕事を続けるのがよいと本人(0.63(0.43–0.93))または夫(0.50(0.30–0.86))が思っているが,妊娠判明後の退職行動に有意につながりにくい独立した要因であった.一方,非正規雇用者(1.93(1.46–2.56))であること,低年齢(1.74(1.10–2.75))であることが退職につながりやすい要因であった.<b>結論:</b>妊娠判明後も就労を継続させる条件づくりとしては,従来からの母性保護制度に加え,職場環境の工夫や,本人と夫の就労意思形成の働きかけが重要である.また,非正規雇用者全てが対象となっていない育児休業制度の全面適用が望まれる.

<b>Objective:</b> More women in Japan continue to quit a job when they find out they are pregnant than in other industrialized countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify factors affecting the quitting rate among female workers who become aware they are pregnant. <b>Methods:</b> All pregnant women visiting or admitted to seven obstetrics medical institutions in Nara Prefecture between November and December 2004 for examination or delivery were surveyed. Of these women, 603 who were working when they discovered their pregnancy were subjects of the analysis. Quitting a job was treated as an event occurrence, and those working at the time of the survey were considered censored cases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the trend of the quitting rate associated with gestational weeks. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine the relationship between quitting a job and workplace factors such as number of staff at the workplace, types of employment, and availability of a legal maternity protection system, and individual factors such as age and thoughts (both subject's and husband's) on continuing work. <b>Results:</b> The quitting rate up to delivery was 63.1%, but this increased to 69.8% when limited to pregnancy with a first child. Significantly independent factors behind continuation of work after discovering pregnancy were the following: receiving time off for medical examinations (HR=0.59, 95% CI (0.41–0.83)), availability of a child care leave system (0.37 (0.22–0.63)), arranged support system after returning from maternity and child care leave (0.60 (0.42–0.87)), workplace ambience is supportive of working after marriage and childbirth (0.59 (0.43–0.81)), and the subject (0.63 (0.43–0.93)) or husband (0.50 (0.30–0.86)) considers it good to continue working during pregnancy. In contrast, a non-regular employee (1.93 (1.46–2.56)) and being young (1.74 (1.10–2.75)) were factors behind quitting a job. <b>Conclusions:</b> Key conditions that encourage work continuation after becoming aware of pregnancy include creative adjustments at the workplace, motivating women and their husbands to consider work intentions, and having an established legal maternity protection system in the workplace. Moreover, comprehensive implementation of a child care leave system that is not available to all non-regular employees is also desirable.

収録刊行物

  • 産業衛生学雑誌 = Journal of occupational health

    産業衛生学雑誌 = Journal of occupational health 54(2), 61-70, 2012-03-20

    Japan Society for Occupational Health

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10030138762
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN10467364
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    13410725
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    023676380
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z19-308
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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