北海道小幌洞窟・岩陰遺跡出土人骨の年代学・形態学的検討  [in Japanese] Chronological and morphological discussions of human skeletal remains from the Koboro cave and rock shelter sites in the southwestern part of Hokkaido Island  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 瀧川 渉 TAKIGAWA Wataru
    • 国際医療福祉大学福岡リハビリテーション学部 School of Rehabilitation Sciences at Fukuoka, International University of Health and Welfare
    • 小杉 康 KOSUGI Yasushi
    • 北海道大学大学院文学研究科北方文化論講座 Department of Northern Culture Studies, Faculty of Humanities, Hokkaido University

Abstract

北海道・噴火湾北岸の豊浦町小幌洞窟では,1952・1961年の発掘調査により7個体の人骨が出土しているが,このうち出土状況が明らかな人骨は1個体のみで,それ以外は撹乱を受け帰属層位すら不明である。2006年の第二次調査では,洞窟東方の岩陰から頭部を欠いた男性人骨の埋葬が確認された。今回,これらの人骨の帰属時期と性格を明らかにすべく各人骨から試料を採取し,放射性炭素(<sup>14</sup>C)年代を測定した。噴火湾沿岸の出土人骨は海洋リザーバー効果と海洋深層水の湧昇流の影響で年代測定値が数百年古く示される傾向にあるため,安定同位体分析の結果を参考に陸上・海洋起源の炭素混合比を見積り,これを基にIntCal09とMarine09を合成した暦年較正プログラムにより年代補正を試みた。この方法は伊達市有珠4遺跡において火山灰の降下年代との照合からその有効性が確認されている。検討の結果,小幌洞窟出土人骨の多くが続縄文時代に属すると見なすことができ,一部個体は頭蓋や歯の形態学的検討からも大きな矛盾は生じないが,2号人骨のみ擦文時代に位置づけられる可能性が浮上した。また,岩陰出土人骨は較正年代と副葬品の煙管,四肢長骨・手骨・下顎骨の形態学的検討から勘案し,17世紀後半以降のアイヌと判断された。<br>

The Koboro cave on the northern coast of the Volcano Bay in the southwestern part of Hokkaido Island is prehistoric site yielded several skeletal remains at archaeological investigation in 1952 and 1961. Only one skeleton (No. 4) of them had positive evidence of burial and stratigraphy, whereas other individuals were excavated from disturbed sediments therefore their chronology was unknown. The 2nd investigation in 2006 confirmed that an adult male without skull was buried at rock shelter to the east of the Koboro cave. In this study, we measured radiocarbon (<sup>14</sup>C) ages utilized sample from skeletal materials in order to decide their chronology and anthropological placements. However, conventional <sup>14</sup>C ages from skeletal remains on the coast of the Volcano Bay tend to be several hundred years older than correct ages for the marine reservoir effects and regional upwelling of deep water. We evaluated the ratios of terrestrial/marine original carbon referred to stable isotopic analysis, and besides, calibrated the <sup>14</sup>C ages of each material on the basis of the calibration program mixed IntCal09 and Marine09. It is appreciated that this procedure is effective to dating of human skeletons taken in many marine products from comparison with tephrochronology in other neighboring archaeological site, Usu-4 site. Present study indicated that most materials from the Koboro cave were placed in the Epi-Jomon period (ca 400BC–700AD) and morphology of a part of individuals was not contradictory to this finding, but individual No. 2 might date to the Satsumon period (ca 700AD–1400AD). A skeleton from rock shelter was assessed as Ainu after the latter 17th century, considered the calibrated ages, a metallic mouthpiece for smoking, and morphology of limbs, hand bones and mandible.<br>

Journal

  • Anthropological Science (Japanese Series)

    Anthropological Science (Japanese Series) 119(2), 49-74, 2011-12-01

    The Anthropological Society of Nippon

References:  71

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10030340387
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11307827
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    ART
  • ISSN
    13443992
  • NDL Article ID
    023449038
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-11
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  J-STAGE 
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