栃原岩陰遺跡(長野県南佐久郡北相木村)出土の縄文時代早期人骨 : 縄文時代早期人骨の再検討 Human skeletal remains from the Tochibara rock-shelter site (Earliest Jomon, Nagano pref., Central Japan), and re-evaluation of the characteristics of the Earliest Jomon people

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長野県南佐久郡北相木村の縄文時代早期の地層(8300から8600 BP(未較正))から,12体の人骨(男性4体,女性4体の成人8体,および性別不明の幼児4体)が,1965年から1968年にかけての信州大学医学部解剖学教室を中心とする発掘で出土した。数少ない縄文時代早期人骨として貴重なもので,今回の研究は,これらの人骨の形態を報告し,従来明らかにされている縄文時代早期人骨の特徴を再検討するものである。顔高が低い,大腿骨の柱状性が著しい,歯の摩耗が顕著である,など一般的な縄文人の特徴を示すとともに,早前期人に一般的な「華奢」な特徴も示す。脳頭蓋は大きいが下顎骨は小さく,下顎体は早期人の中でもっとも薄い。下顎骨の筋突起は低いが前方に強く張り出している。上肢は華奢だが,下肢は縄文時代中後晩期人と同様に頑丈である。他の縄文時代早前期人と比較検討した結果,縄文時代早期人の特徴は,従来まとめられているものの若干の改定を含めて,次のように再確認された。1)顔面頭蓋が低い。2)下顎は小さいが,筋突起が前方に強く張り出す。3)下肢骨に比べて上肢骨が華奢である。4)下顎歯,特に前歯部には顕著な磨耗がある。<br>

Eight adult and four infant human remains dating back to the Earliest Jomon age, excavated in the Tochibara rock-shelter site, Nagano prefecture, Central Japan, exhibited general Jomon features, such as low facial height, pilasteric femur, and marked tooth abrasion. They show specific features of the Earliest and Early Jomon people—an extremely short face and a small mandible with a thin corpus. Although their face was small, masticatory function might have been well-developed. In the male skeletons, the lower limb bones are almost equal in thickness to those of Later and Latest Jomon males, but the upper limb bones are more slender than those of Late and Latest Jomon males. The female upper and lower limb bones are almost equal in thickness to those of Later and Latest Jomon females. Considerable change might have occurred in the way of life of Early to Late Jomon men, for example, from nomadic to stable residence, as well as from pure gathering/hunting to gathering/hunting with primitive agriculture. The skeletons also exhibit various pathological lesions, such as enamel hypoplasia, Harris’s lines, osteoarthritis in the mandibular joint, carious teeth, and radicular cysts, which imply that the daily life of the Earliest Jomon people was difficult. By comparison of the Tochibara skeletons with other Jomon skeletons, the so-called specific features of Earliest and Early Jomon skeletons were re-confirmed, with some modifications: 1) extremely short face, 2) small mandible but wide and forward-projecting coronoid process, 3) slender upper limb bones, and 4) heavy abrasion of mandibular teeth. Recently, it was suggested that the Jomon people were not homogeneous but consisted of various subgroups, according to their mt-DNA haplotype. The specific morphological features of the Earliest and Early Jomon people must be considered from the viewpoints of both phylogenetic differences and change in life-style.<br>

収録刊行物

  • Anthropological science. Japanese series : journal of the Anthropological Society of Nippon : 人類學雜誌

    Anthropological science. Japanese series : journal of the Anthropological Society of Nippon : 人類學雜誌 119(2), 91-124, 2011-12-01

    日本人類学会

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10030340521
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11307827
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    13443992
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    023449097
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z19-11
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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