通勤圏との関係からみた「平成の大合併」 Major Mergers in the Heisei Era and the Relationship with Commuting Areas

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「平成の大合併」を通勤圏(日常生活圏)や国土集落システムとの関係から考察した結果,「昭和の大合併」では中心地システムへ適合するかたちの合併が多かったが,高度経済成長期を経て大きく変化した国土の中で実施された「平成の大合併」では,国土集落システムへの適合が基本的条件となった.過疎地域が広い面積を占める地方圏では小規模町村の多くが合併したが,市町の規模が大きく財政的にも豊かな大都市圏内の市町村では合併は比較的少ないままにとどまったので,住民生活における地域格差をむしろ拡大することとなった.通勤圏の未発達な山間僻地や離島には未合併町村が多く残されているが,通勤圏や日常生活圏を全く無視した市町村合併は少ない.

During the third great wave of mergers of municipalities in Japan, major mergers in the Heisei Era were undertaken from 1999 to 2010, about 50 years after the second wave of major mergers in the Showa Era (1953 to 1961). In comparing the two waves of mergers, the geographic and financial conditions of municipalities differed significantly. Based on high economic growth rate in Japan after the major mergers in the Showa Era, metropolitan cities developed remarkably in central Japan, while small municipalities of fewer than 10,000 inhabitants had become much more numerous in 2000 than in 1960 in nonmetropolitan areas. Most of those small municipalities subsequently experienced deteriorating financial conditions. Thus, the central-peripheral structure in all areas of Japan became apparent. As a result, more small municipalities in nonmetropolitan areas merged compared with larger, richer municipalities in the areas surrounding metropolitan cities.<br>When investigating municipal mergers, it is important to consider them not only from the administrative and financial aspects of municipalities but also from daily living areas and population scales. This study attempted to investigate how daily living areas and population scales of municipalities were taken into consideration in the major mergers in the Heisei Era by regarding commuting areas of a city as daily living areas. By comparing commuting conditions of municipalities with actual mergers, each municipality was classified by the type of merger. Although most municipalities adopted commuting areas (daily living areas), in many cases new municipalities were formed within the same commuting area rather than expanding the territory of a central city.<br>It was estimated that the merger patterns of municipalities were principally formed under the influence of the central-peripheral structure in the following order: a few municipalities merged in the suburban areas of metropolitan cities as well as large nonmetropolitan cities where many rich municipalities with populations of more than 10,000 were located, and they often rejected merging with large cities. Within commuting areas of larger cities, as mentioned above, new cities and new municipalities were created by merging small municipalities rather than expanding their territories markedly. In the areas surrounding medium- and smallsized cities, the territories themselves expanded, and then new municipalities were formed by merging small central places with surrounding rural municipalities. In mountainous areas and on remote islands, many small municipalities remained without merging based on their narrow daily living areas. Therefore, adaptation to national settlement systems played an important role in municipality mergers in the Heisei Era in comparison with adaptation to central place systems in the Showa Era.<br>However, there were many exceptions. Numerous municipalities remained without merging mainly because of unsuccessful negotiations between the relevant municipalities. In addition, on the one hand lone areas such as detached pieces of land appeared; on the other hand, two neighboring municipalities that utilized separate daily living areas rarely merged with each other.<br>Although the number of municipalities had decreased from 3,232 to 1,727 by the end of March 2010, the governmental goal of 1,000 municipalities was not reached. The organizations of regional unions (<i>koikirengo</i>) and partially functional unions (<i>ichibujimukumiai</i>) should be fully utilized in the administration of small, unmerged municipalities. In addition, it appears that those municipal mergers that were vigorously executed in nonmetropolitan areas could contribute to promoting rather than reducing regional disparities between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas or between urban and rural areas.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論 = Geographical review of Japan

    地理学評論 = Geographical review of Japan 84(5), 421-441, 2011-09-01

    公益社団法人 日本地理学会

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10030364167
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11591990
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    18834388
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    11229001
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理) // ZM41(科学技術--地球科学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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