北海道函館市南茅部におけるコンブ養殖業の地域差 Spatial Differences in Kombu Aquaculture in Minamikayabe, Hakodate City, Hokkaido

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本稿は,北海道函館市南茅部におけるコンブ養殖業について,養殖方法の地域差とその条件を明らかにした.1950年代以降,南茅部ではコンブの増産と養殖の導入が図られた.1966年の1年促成コンブ養殖試験の成功により,安定したコンブ生産が可能となり,以降,1年促成養殖は南茅部全域に急速に広まっていくが,天然コンブと同様に2年の成長期間を必要とする2年養殖も継続された.地区別にみると,天然コンブの価格序列である浜格差において,高く評価される尾札部地区では,浜格差の影響を強く受ける2年養殖が重要であるが,低位である大船地区では,浜格差の影響を受けずに地区独自の取引を行うことができる1年促成養殖への特化が認められた.以上から,南茅部におけるコンブ養殖業の導入は,既存の天然コンブ漁の状況に基づき,地区ごとに異なった養殖方法の選択的受容につながった.その結果,地区間のコンブの収益格差の解消に結びついたと意義付けることができた.

This study aims to clarify how and why two different techniques of kombu (edible kelp) aquaculture were introduced in Minamikayabe, Hakodate city, at its geographical conditions.<br>Because of the loss of territory in Japan after the Second World War, kombu processors requested for the redevelopment of domestic production centers and began to import kombu from China, Korea, and Russia in the 1960s. Minamikayabe, a well-known production center of natural kombu, faced some difficulties such as the instability of “natural” kombu resources. Consequently, fishermen in this area took up kombu aquaculture, an alternative to the traditional natural kombu production. In 1966, the Kakkumi Fisheries Cooperative began focusing on intensive kombu aquaculture as a part of the pilot program of the Hokkaido Development Bureau. This project successfully implemented intensive kombu aquaculture in this region. An additional benefit of this project was that cultured kombu takes one year to mature, while natural kombu takes two. Subsequently, kombu aquaculture spreaded in other fisheries cooperatives, and Minamikayabe became the largest producer of kombu in Japan. In addition to intensively cultured kombu, the biennial cultured kombu, which can be harvested only after two years, is cultivated in this region.<br>Among the six fishing districts in Minamikayabe, the choice of two techniques of kombu aquaculture differed in Osatsube and Ofune. This choice was partly influenced by <i>hamakakusa</i>, a traditional practice followed in kombu trading, in which the prices of kombu are ranked according to differences in the quality of kombu by district, and which is applied to both natural and biennial cultured kombu. For example, in Osatsube, which has a higher rank under <i>hamakakusa</i>, a certain amount of biennial cultured kombu is continually cultivated. On the other hand, in Ofune, a district with a lower rank, only intensive culture is practiced, because intensively cultured kombu takes less time to mature compared with natural kombu. Thus, in Ofune, the quality of kombu was commensurate with the effort put into production. However, the prices of intensively cultured kombu are not influenced by <i>hamakakusa</i>.<br>The introduction of kombu aquaculture in Minamikayabe enabled fishermen to select either of the two techniques of kombu aquaculture while considering <i>hamakakusa</i> and thereby decreased regional economic disparities.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論 = Geographical review of Japan

    地理学評論 = Geographical review of Japan 84(6), 610-625, 2011-11-01

    公益社団法人 日本地理学会

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10030364442
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11591990
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    SHO
  • ISSN
    18834388
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    023428951
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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