海底電磁探査の近年の進歩とメタンハイドレート検出への適用 Recent Advance of Marine Electromagnetic Sounding and Its Application to Methane Hydrate Detection

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著者

    • 後藤 忠徳 GOTO Tada-nori
    • 京都大学大学院工学研究科社会基盤工学専攻 Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University
    • 笠谷 貴史 KASAYA Takafumi
    • 海洋研究開発機構地球内部ダイナミクス領域 Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

抄録

 Marine electromagnetic (EM) sounding methods were developed originally for imaging the deep mantle, partial melt below mid-oceanic ridges, active faults in the crust around subduction zones, etc. Recently, marine EM sounding has been applied extensively for oil, gas, and methane hydrate exploration. In this paper, we introduce various marine EM sounding methods and case studies. Natural fluctuations of EM fields from the ionosphere can be observed on the seafloor using ocean-bottom electromagnetometers (OBEMs), and the marine magnetotelluric sounding method can be applied for imaging the deep structure (> several km below the seafloor). However, the natural signal is less powerful in the higher frequency band and provides less resolution for near-seafloor structures. A high-frequency controlled electromagnetic source on/near/below the seafloor is necessary for evaluating the shallow structure. Marine controlled-source EM (CSEM) sounding using a horizontal electric dipole, towed near the seafloor and sending an electric signal, and OBEMs as receivers settled on the seafloor is widely used for oil and gas exploration, and occasionally for methane hydrate explorations. A vertical electric dipole is also used for magnetometric resistivity (MMR) sounding when exploring hydrothermal systems around ridges. On the other hand, both sources and receivers attached to a cable can be towed near the seafloor for a continuous survey. Towed-CSEM sounding with a time-domain analysis is used especially for methane hydrate exploration. Another type of towed-CSEM with magnetic signal obtains porosity information on near-seafloor sediments. A deep-towed marine DC resistivity survey has been applied near the seafloor, and successfully imaged shallow methane hydrate distributions in sedimentary layers. Thus, various marine EM soundings can illuminate sub-seafloor methane hydrate, and are useful for discussing the accumulation/dissolution process of methane hydrate and the potential of methane hydrate as a new energy resource.

収録刊行物

  • 地學雜誌

    地學雜誌 118(5), 935-954, 2009-10-25

    Tokyo Geographical Society

参考文献:  88件中 1-88件 を表示

被引用文献:  3件中 1-3件 を表示

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10030366650
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00322536
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    REV
  • ISSN
    0022135X
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    10503793
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZM41(科学技術--地球科学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z15-169
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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